126 Harv. L. Rev. 411 (2012-2013)
Historical Gloss and the Separation of Powers

handle is hein.journals/hlr126 and id is 421 raw text is: VOLUME 126                          DECEMBER 2012                                 NUMBER 2
HARVARD LAW REVIEW                                                                         I
0 2012 by The Harvard Law Review Association
ARTICLES
HISTORICAL GLOSS AND THE
SEPARATION OF POWERS
Curtis A. Bradley and Trevor W Morrison
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION                                     .................412
I.   HISTORICAL PRACTICE AND CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION......................417
A.  Prevalence  of  the  H istorical Gloss Argument.............................................................417
B.  Constitutional Theory  and  Judicial Review............................ . ...................424
i.  C onstitutional  T heory .................................................................................................424
2. Judicial Review                   ...................................... .........428
3.  T he  Im portance  of  A m biguity...................................................................................430
II.  INSTITUTIONAL      ACQUIESCENCE      ....................................................................................432
A.  The  M eaning  and  Value  of  Acquiescence......................................................................433
i.  A cquiescence  as  A greem ent......................................................................................433
2.  A cquiescence  as  W aiver..............................................................................................435
3.  Acquiescence  and  the  Limits of Judicial Review ....................................................436
B. The Madisonian Paradigm and Its Problems........................................................438
i. Structural Impediments to Congressional Action.............................440
2. Political Asymmetries Between Congress and the Presidency............................. 441
3.  M odern  Congressional-Executive  Relations...........................................................-444
III.  REASSESSING    H ISTORICAL   GLOSS   ..................................................................................447
A. Implications for Acquiescence Arguments....................................448
i.  Legislative  A cquiescence...................................................................................... 448
2.  E xecutive  A cquiescence............................................................................................. 452
B.  H istorical Practice  W ithout Acquiescence .................................................................. 455
i. Burkean Values and Principled Decisionmaking..................................................455
2. The Legitimacy of Law and the Role of the Courts..............................................456
3.  Internal Reliance  by  the  Executive  Branch.............................................................457
IV.  CASE   STUDIES         .............. ............................................................................ 461
A.  War Powers              .......................................................... 461
B.  Congressional-Executive  Agreem  ents ............................................................................468
C.  R em oval of  E xecutive  Officers...................................................................................... 476
C O N C L U SIO N              ................................................................................. -..............-.- 485
411

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