About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

13 How. J. Penology & Crime Prevention 3 (1970-1973)

handle is hein.journals/hjcj13 and id is 1 raw text is: 


     This issue contains two descriptions of pioneer projects in the treatment of
 offenders. Dr. Sluga's article is important not only because it describes a
 particular treatment method-a form  of psychodrama so far untried in prisons
 -but because it suggests a constructive way of dealing with long-term, unstable,
 highly institutionalised offenders. Mittersteig prison in Vienna is a small
 prison, .with all the possibillties of individual attention and reduction of dangerous
 tensions which a small unit facilitates. That in itself is worth while. Prisoners
 also have a wide range of facilities at their disposal and can obtain all kinds of
 food (grapes were in evidence in some of the cells). The facilities provide a
 challenge; but, together with the variety of food, they are also a symbol of
 caring. The psychodrama helps to express inner or outer conflict. What charac-
 terises Mittersteig is what characterises Grendon-open   communication   is
     Mr. Karacki  and Dr.  Levinson describe the use of rewards as a way of
influencing behaviour  and  reinforcing social learning. Traditionally, penal
institutions have had few rewards  to offer and have leant rather heavily on
punishments-loss   of remission, solitary confinement, even the withholding of
food, a strikingly primitive measure. In this country, Coldingley prison offers,
for the first time, earnings which are worth having as an incentive. But this
reward applies entirely to work and not to the encouragement of other behaviour
which  might be desirable and which might require just as much effort. Praise
and recognition, if it is genuinely given for some worthwhile effort, should have
an  important place in institutional treatment. Alas, it is seldom deliberately
considered and  woven  into the regime.
     The other interesting feature of the token economy at the Robert F. Kennedy
Youth   Centre is the differential classification. Young offenders are tested
and  divided according to personality types. It is recognised that what comes
easily to one person may  be difficult for another. And this is recognised so
that rewards  are proportionate to the individual's own capacity.
    Dr. Edwards  might well call the system of operant conditioning used at the
Youth  Centre brainwashing. As  an analyst, his philosophy and his techniques
are entirely different. This emerges clearly from his article on masochism.
The  forcing of a child, the use of force in society, the force of the pressure
of a rapidly expanding population-all are disastrous. The masochistic character
structure which he paints so well is marked in many  offenders. 'Growth  to
Freedom',  the title of Derek Millers' well-known book on borstal boys, des-
cribes what they most need and what  they can seldom get or achieve.


What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.

Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most