27 Harv. Int'l. L. J. 499 (1986)
Lawyers, Foreign Lawyers, and Lawyer-Substitutes: The Market for Regulation in Japan

handle is hein.journals/hilj27 and id is 509 raw text is: VOLUME 27, SPECIAL ISSUE, 1986

Lawyers, Foreign Lawyers,
and Lawyer-Substitutes:
The Market for Regulation in Japan
J. Mark Ramseyer*
Ulust as a good airplane pilot should always be looking for places to
land, so should a lawyer be looking for situations where large amounts
of money [are] about to change hands, Kurt Vonnegut tells us. I And
in Tokyo money is changing hands faster than ever. As more and more
United States lawyers go to Japan to look for money, the legal press
has been devoting more and more space to the Japanese barriers to
foreign lawyers.2 The market for international legal services in Tokyo
is a potentially lucrative one. Indeed, because of that potential for
profit, the restrictions on foreign lawyers have become a divisive trade
issue: taking up the cause of United States lawyers, U.S. officials have
* Acting Professor of Law, University of California, Los Angeles. J.D. Harvard University
1982; A.M. University of Michigan 1978; B.A. Goshen College 1976. I gladly acknowledge
the generous help and suggestions of Kenneth Abbot, Alberto Calafell, Richard Clemens, Harry
First, John George, Marcia Goodman, Robert Grondine, Hiroyuki Kamano, John McLees, Bruce
Melton, Arthur Mitchell, David Nerkle, Thomas Nicholson, Emery Simon, Frank Upham,
Norma Wyse, and Michael Young.
1. K. VONNEGUT, GOD BLESS YOU MR. ROSEWATER, OR PEARLS BEFORE SWINE 17 (1965).
2. See, e.g., -A. ALEXANDER & H. TAN, CASE STUDIES OF U.S. SERVICE TRADE IN JAPAN,
RAND NOTE N-2169, at 39-62 (1984); D. HENDERSON, FOREIGN ENTERPRISE IN JAPAN 177
(1973); Abrahams,Japan's Bar to U.S. Lawyers, NAT'L L.J., July 4, 1983, at 1; Altschul,Japan's
Elite Law Firms, INT'L FIN. L. REV., June 1984, at 6; Brown, A Lawyer by Any Other Name:
Legal Advisors in Japan, in LEGAL ASPECTS OF DOING BUSINESS IN JAPAN 201, 440-77 (1983);
Fukuhara, The Status of Foreign Lawyers in Japan, 17 JAPANESE ANN. INT'L L. 21 (1973); Hahn,
An Overview of the Japanese Legal System, 5 Nw. J. INT'L L- & Bus. 517, 536-38 (1983); Kosugi,
Regulation of Practice by Foreign Lawyers, 27 Am. J. CoMP. L. 678 (1979); Meyerson, Legal Services
Relating to Doing Businss WithJapan, in LEGAL ASPECTS OF DOING BUSINESS IN JAPAN, supra,
at 7; Ohira & Stevens, Alien Lawyers in the United States and Japan-A Comparative Study, 39
WASH. L. REv. 412 (1964); Shapiro, Cultural Barriers to Delivery of Services, in BUSINESS
TRANSACTIONS WITH CHINA, JAPAN, AND SOUTH KOREA, ch. 8 (P. Saney & H. Smit eds.
1983); Comment, An American Lawyer in Tokyo: Problem of Establishing a Practice, 2 U.C.L.A.
PAc. BASIN L.J. 180 (1983).

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