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20 Hastings Const. L.Q. 149 (1992-1993)
Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991: Effective Covert Action Reform or Business as Usual

handle is hein.journals/hascq20 and id is 159 raw text is: Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization
Act, Fiscal Year 1991: Effective Covert
Action Reform or Business as Usual?
By PAUL GUMINA*
Table of Contents
Introduction  ...................................................   150
I.  Background    ..........................................      151
A. What Is a Covert Action? .............................     151
B. The Executive Supremacy Argument ...................       154
C. Rebutting the Executive Supremacy Argument-A
Review of the Constitution's Text in Historical
Perspective  ...........................................  155
D. Summary: The Executive Supremacy Theory is not
Supported by the Constitution's Text in Light of The
Framers' Historical Experience ........................  161
E. The Statutory Framework for Congressional Oversight of
Covert Actions Reflects the Theory of Shared War and
Foreign Relations Power ..............................    162
1. The National Security Act of 1947 .................   162
2. Appropriations Statutes ............................   164
3. The Hughes-Ryan Amendment of 1974 .............       164
4. The Congressional Oversight Act of 1980 ...........    165
5. The Statutory CIA Inspector General ...............   165
6. The Veto of an Early Version of The Intelligence
Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991 ................  167
II. Title VI of the Intelligence Authorization Act, Fiscal
Y ear  1991  ...........................................      168
A. The Rationale Behind Title VI .........................    168
* Associate, Horan, Lloyd, Karachale, Dyer, Horan & Schwartz, Monterey, Cal. J.D.,
University of San Francisco School of Law, 1992.
The author gives many thanks to the editors and staff members of the Hastings Constitu-
tional Law Quarterly for their hard work and valuable assistance. Thanks also to Dana Sim-
mons, David Godwin, Elizabeth Gard, Dorothy Robins, and Elizabeth Kurr for their
comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this Article. Special thanks to my parents and
to Rosemary and Gary Wesela for their encouragement and support through this project.
Finally, the author is indebted to Dina Gan for her patience, kindness and understanding.

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