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3 Global Resp. Protect 248 (2011)
The Road to Humanitarian War in Libya

handle is hein.journals/gloresp3 and id is 256 raw text is: MARTINUS                                                  G12
PUB L I SHE R s  Global Responsibility to Protect 3 (2011) 248-259  brill.nl/gr2p
The Road to Humanitarian War in Libya
Paul D. Williams
George Washington University
On 19 March 2011 military forces from France, Canada, Italy, the UK and
the US struck the air defences and soldiers of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's
regime in Libya as part of Operation Odyssey Dawn. These countries were
acting as part of a coalition of states to enforce the objectives authorized by the
United Nations (UN) Security Council in resolution 1973 (17 March 2011),
principally the operation of a no-fly zone over Libya and the protection of
civilians on the ground. Although Gaddafi's officials had declared that they
had put in place a ceasefire shortly after resolution 1973 was authorized, by
the morning of 18 March it was clear that this was not the case and the regime's
assault on the city of Benghazi was underway.
The following day, an impromptu summit was convened in Paris in which
the initial modalities of Operation Odyssey Dawn were finalized. The summit
convened representatives of 18 states (primarily from Europe and North
America but also including Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Qatar and the United
Arab Emirates) as well as officials from the League of Arab States (LAS) and
the European Union (EU). It was notable that a pre-summit meeting took
place between the French President, British Prime Minister and the US
Secretary of State. A communiqu6 issued by France's Presidential office on
behalf of the summit's participants said that a coalition had formed to imple-
ment the Security Council's demands and that 'Muammar Gaddafi and
those executing his orders must immediately end the acts of violence carried
out against civilians, to withdraw from all areas they have entered by force,
return to their compounds, and allow full humanitarian access. ... We are
determined to take all necessary action, including military, consistent with

Q Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011

DOI 10.1163/18759841IX575702

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