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22 Global Governance 41 (2016)
Brazil and the Responsibility While Protecting Initiative: Norms and the Timing of Diplomatic Support

handle is hein.journals/glogo22 and id is 43 raw text is: 

Global Governance 22 (2016), 41-58

              Brazil and the Responsibility
     While Protecting Initiative: Norms and
         the Timing of Diplomatic Support

         Kai  Michael Kenkel and Cristina G. Stefan

    This article examines Brazil's responsibility while protecting (RwP) initia-
    tive as an example of norm sponsorship available to nonpermanent mem-
    bers of the Security Council. After setting the stage with Brazil's historical
    engagement  with intervention issues, it discusses the reasons behind the
    Brazilian initiative. It examines RwP's key proposals and the reactions they
    generated. RwP's normative implications are discussed, together with an
    examination of the main reasons why Brazil's sponsorship of the initiative
    waned  following its exit from the Council. Brazil's withdrawal from spon-
    soring RwP highlights the need for ongoing support for initiatives that
    seek to revive the international community's intervention practices by
    tackling the basic tenets of discord over R2P's implementation. Keywords:
    responsibility while protecting, Brazil, international norms, Responsibility
    to Protect, intervention, emerging powers.

key contribution to the international debate on the Responsibility to Protect
(R2P) and intervention in general, as well as a guiding element for Brazil's and
other emerging  powers' engagement   with intervention, collective security,
global governance, and normative aspects of recent changes in the balance of
global influence. Its contribution lies in reconciling supportive and dissenting
views on R2P, including those from both the Global North and South, in the
wake  of the divisive 2011 intervention in Libya. In this sense, it is an example
of the shaping of a norm, done by an emerging  power availing itself of the
platform offered by nonpermanent membership  in the UN Security Council.
    RwP's  potential as a bridge-building exercise was realized only after ini-
tially strong criticism. Due to a combination of diplomatic and domestic rea-
sons-including,  significantly, the end of the country's term on the Security
Council-by   the time its potential had been recognized, RwP had seen the sup-
port of its original sponsor withdrawn. The Brazilian initiative provides in-
sights into a number of pertinent issues regarding the current intervention
debate and beyond. These include the role of normative debates-especially in
the Council-as  a locus of emerging powers' challenge to the global order, and
these states' potential as norm entrepreneurs, as well as the importance of con-
tinued active sponsorship to the success of conceptual initiatives in global

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