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17 Global Governance 247 (2011)
Global and Local Policy Responses to the Resource Trap

handle is hein.journals/glogo17 and id is 251 raw text is: Global Governance 17 (201 1), 247-264

Global and Local Policy Responses
to the Resource Trap
Gilles Carbonnier, Fritz Brugger,
and Jana Krause
This article examines the most significant international policy responses
that seek to address the resource trap and spur development in resource-
rich, but fragile states. It applies a regime theoretical framework to assess
recent multistakeholder initiatives within the extractive sector by focusing
on the processes through which they seek to alter the behavior of public
and private organizations. Based on a review of the Nigerian and Azeri
cases, the article finds that civil society often does not have the capacity to
live up to the high expectations placed on it by these initiatives. The effec-
tiveness and eventual success of multistakeholder initiatives in the extractive
sector require exploring alternative pathways to affect behavior of key ac-
tors. Stronger market incentives and regulation can provide the conditions
required for extractive activities to result in positive development outcomes.
KEYwoRos: civil society, Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, multi-
stakeholder initiatives, Nigeria, Azerbaijan, regime theory resource curse.
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and emerging
economies alike, whose foreign relations agenda is often dictated by a perma-
nent concern to secure oil and gas supplies. Yet there is no such thing as a
global governance system for energy. Instead, there is a myriad of regional and
sectoral organizations as well as bilateral agreements that address specific
concerns between selected producer and consumer states. It is true that the In-
ternational Energy Forum (IEF) has served as a global platform for dialogue
between consumer, producer, and transit countries since the beginning of the
1990s. But the IEF is not an intergovernmental organization and its recom-
mendations are not binding. Investment and trade agreements are negotiated
in a piecemeal manner under bilateral and regional agreements or treaties like
the Energy Charter Treaty.
Against this background, it is no wonder that industrialized countries do
not make poverty alleviation their first priority vis-A-vis resource-rich devel-
oping countries. Addressing the resource curse is not a top priority as long as
it does not put energy security at risk. Governance and development in frag-
ile, resource-rich states have nonetheless drawn increasingly more attention
from rich countries because of the ensuing risks in terms of regional stability


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