85 Geo. L.J. 491 (1996-1997)
Majoritarian Judicial Review: The Entrenchment Problem

handle is hein.journals/glj85 and id is 511 raw text is: ARTICLES
Majoritarian Judicial Review:
The Entrenchment Problem
MICHAEL J. KLARMAN*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  INTRODUCTION  ......................................  492
II. ENTRENCHMENT DEFINED-LEGISLATIVE AND CROSS-ThMPORAL . .  502
III. ANTI-ENTRENCHMENT THEORY APPLIED-ELECTORAL ISSUES ....  509
A.  TERM  LIMITS .....................................  509
B.  MALAPPORTIONMENT  ...............................  513
C.  GERRYMANDERING .................................   515
D. THE SCOPE OF THE POLITICAL COMMUNITY .................... 517
E.  BALLOT ACCESS RESTRICTIONS  ........................  521
F.  CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM  ..........................  522
G.  MINORITY  VOTE DILUTION ............................  523
H.  MINORITY  VOTING  DISTRICTS ..........................  526
IV. PROBLEMS WITH APPLYING ANTI-ENTRENCHMENT THEORY .......  528
A. WHAT ARE ANTI-ENTRENCHMENT COURTS TO DO? ............... 528
1.  Term   Limits  .................................  530
2.  M alapportionment .............................  531
3.  Gerrymandering  ..............................  533
4. The Scope of the Political Community ................. 534
5.  Ballot Access Restrictions  .......................  535
* Professor of Law, University of Virginia. I am indebted to the following people for extremely
helpful comments on earlier drafts: John Hart Ely, Barry Friedman, Pam Karlan, Jody Kraus, Hal Krent,
Daryl Levinson, Fred Schauer, Mike Seidman, and Bill Stuntz. I am also grateful to Clay Gillette, Jack
Goldsmith, John Harrison, Saul Levmore, Paul Mahoney, Dan Ortiz, Ted White, and to participants in a
University of Virginia School of Law summer roundtable and in the inaugural Virginia Constitutional
Law workshop for helpful discussion of particular points. Rebecca Edwards, Melissa Mather, and Chris
Meyer provided first-rate research assistance.

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