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102 Geo. L.J. 1045 (2013-2014)
The Necessary and Proper Clauses

handle is hein.journals/glj102 and id is 1081 raw text is: The Necessary and Proper Clauses
JOHN MIKHAIL*
The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be neces-
sary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all
other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United
States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.'
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION                      .......................................... 1046
1.  FOREGOING POWERS vs. ALL OTHER POWERS                .................     1058
11.  THE ORIGINS OF RESOLUTION VI OF THE VIRGINIA PLAN ...........             1071
A.   THE GAP IN MADISON'S PRECONVENTION CORRESPONDENCE ..... ..           1072
B.   WILSON'S ESSAY ON THE BANK OF NORTH AMERICA         ..........       1074
C. POLITICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PENNSYLVANIA AND
VIRGINIA DELEGATIONS            .............................        1078
III.  THE DRAFTING HISTORY OF THE NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSES . .               1086
A.   RANDOLPH'S DRAFT              ............................... 1087
* Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center. © 2014, John Mikhail. For helpful
conversations and generous feedback, I wish to thank Jack Balkin, Randy Barnett, Christopher
Beauchamp, Mary Bilder, Guyora Binder, Frederic Bloom, William Boyd, Donald Braman, Paul Butler,
Jonathan Cardi, Thomas Colby, David Cole, Saul Cornell, Michael Curtis, Walter Dellinger, Michael
Diamond, Laura Dickinson, Laura Donohue, Garrett Epps, Dan Ernst, William Eskridge, William
Ewald, David Golove, Irv Gornstein, Vicki Jackson, Calvin Johnson, Greg Klass, Laurie Kohn, Adam
Kolber, Larry Kramer, Joseph Landau, Don Langevoort, Kurt Lash, Marty Lederman, Thomas Lee,
David Luban, Pauline Maier, Eugene Mazo, Allegra McLeod, Michael McConnell, Victoria Nourse,
James Oldham, Michael Paulsen, Eloise Pasachoff, Abigail Perdue, Nina Pillard, Jeff Pojanowski, Jed
Purdy, Robert Pushaw, Nick Rosenkranz, Roy Schotland, Mike Seidman, Mortimer Sellers, Lawrence
Solan, Lawrence Solum, Robert Thompson, William Treanor, Mark Tushnet, Carlos Vazquez, Andrew
Verstein, David Vladeck, Robin West, Ed Whelan, Ronald Wright, and Ben Zipursky. I am especially
grateful to Michael Ramsey, Michael Rappaport, and Steven Smith for inviting me to present an early
draft of this Article at the Third Annual Originalism Works-in-Progress Conference at the University of
San Diego, as well as to all of the participants in that conference for their valuable input. This Article
also benefited from faculty workshops at Brooklyn Law School, Fordham Law School, George
Washington University Law School, Georgetown University Law Center, University of Baltimore
School of Law, and Wake Forest Law School. Michael Daly, Brian French, Patrick Kane, Sean Kellem,
and Matthew Trout provided excellent research and technical assistance. I also wish to express my
gratitude to the staff of the Georgetown Law Library, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and Library of
Congress, and to the staff and editors of The Georgetown Law Journal, particularly Meg Degeneffe,
Josh Hafenbrack, Keith Howell, Nicolas Kirby, Shauna Kramer, Greta Mattessich, Jordan Pietzsch,
Judith Pond, and Amanda Weiss. Finally, special thanks to Randy Barnett, Marty Lederman, Larry
Solum, and Bill Treanor for their support and encouragement during the early stages of this project, and
to Marty for suggesting the title.
1. U.S. CONST. art. I, § 8, cl. 18 (emphasis added).
1045

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