About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

23 Gonz. J. Int'l L. 1 (2019-2020)

handle is hein.journals/gjil23 and id is 1 raw text is: 













    CONNECTIVITY: THE GLOBAL GENDER
DIGITAL DIVIDE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR
  WOMEN'S HUMAN RIGHTS AND EQUALITY

                     Mary Pat Treuthart*




I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................2
II. BENEFITS OF WOMEN'S MEANINGFUL AND SUBSTANTIAL ACCESS TO
     ICTS ....................................................................................................5
     A.  Economic and Educational Empowerment .................................5
     B.  Political Participation  and M obilization.....................................9
     C.  Development of Voice and Agency ............................................12
III. BARRIERS TO WOMEN'S ACCESS TO ICTS.............................................14
IV. THE SPECIAL PROBLEM OF CYBERVIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN & GIRLS
      ...........................................................................................................16
      A. Terminology and Definitions .....................................................17
      B. The Extent of  Cyberviolence......................................................20
      C. Addressing the Ongoing Threat of CyberVAWG.......................21
      D. Other Approaches: Forms of Informal Justice..........................25
      E. Possible Backlash ......................................................................27
      F. Countering Violence against Women by Using ICTs ................29
V. INTERNET ACCESS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ...........32
     A.  Internet Access as a Basic Human Right...................................32
     B.  Protection of Relevant Fundamental Human Rights in the
         International System..................................................................36
     C.  Protection for Relevant Fundamental Human Rights at the
         Regional and Domestic Levels ..................................................38
     D.  Women's Equality: The Human Rights Dimension ...................40
     E.  Women's Equality and ICTs: The Beijing Declaration and
         Platform for Action  (BDPFA) ...............................................42
     F.  Women's Equality and ICTs: Circumscribed by Sociocultural
         Factors.......................................................................................43
     G.  Women's Equality and ICTs: the U.N.'s Involvement...........44
VI. FUTURE DIRECTIONS ..............................................................................50
VII. CONCLUSION .........................................................................................53


1

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most