16 Gonz. J. Int'l L. 1 (2012-2013)

handle is hein.journals/gjil16 and id is 1 raw text is: Human Trafficking: Trends in Africa
Florence Shu-Acquaye
I. INTRODUCTION                 .............................................................................. 2
II. HUMAN          TRAFFICKING: TRENDS IN                     AFRICA         .......................................           4
1I1. FORMS OF           HUMAN         TRAFFICKING             ..................................................... 4
A. Definition          Of Human           Trafficking         ..................................... 4
B. Child       Trafficking. W           ho    is a  Child?       ...............................           5
C. Distinction Between Trafficking and Slavery .................. 7
D. Distinction Between Human Trafficking and Smuggling .... 7
E. Forced         Labor .............................................................. 8
F. Bonded         Labor       ................................................................ 9
G. Sex      Trafficking           ......................................................... 10
I-   Child     Labor        .............................................................                12
I. Child      Soldiering        .......................................................... 12
J. Stages of Human                Trafficking         .......................................            13
IV. FACT ORS CONTRIBUTING TO HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN AFRICA ........... 14
A- Poverty          ..................................................................... 14
B. Culture          ..................................................................... 14
C. Other Factors ............................................................                            14
D. True       Stories ..............................................................                      15
V. THE LAW AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING: APPLICATION AND IMPACT ....... 18
VI. COMBAT ING              HUMAN         TRAFFICKIN GIN              AFRI CA       ................................ 21
A   International ............................................................                          21
B.The Role of the African                    Union      ..................................... 23
1. Legislative Framework ............................................. 25
2. Policy       Development .............................................                         25
3. Law       Enforcement ..................................................                       26
4. Cooperation            and    Coordination           ...............................           26
C. Individual Efforts by                 Countries .................................... 27
VII. CHALLENGES AND                    RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................ 29
A   Obstacles to Enforcement of National Legislation ............ 29
B. Recommendations                   ....................................................                30
VIII. CONCLUSION                ............................................................................. 31

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