15 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 105 (2002-2003)
Safe Harbors: Crafting an International Solution to Cruise Ship Pollution

handle is hein.journals/gintenlr15 and id is 115 raw text is: Safe Harbors: Crafting an International Solution
to Cruise Ship Pollution
ANDREW SCHULKIN*

CONTENTS

Intrnduction

II. Crui
A.
B.
C.
III. Need
A.
B.
C.
D.
IV. Inter

C.
V. Impr
A.
B.
C.
D.
VI. Conc

se Ship Pollution and its Effect on the Environment ............
Size  and  Scope  ...................................
W astes Produced  ..................................
1.  Sew age  . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.  G ray  W ater  ..................................
3.  A ir  Pollution  .................................
4.  Hazardous W aste  ..............................
5.  Solid  W aste  ..................................
6.  Oily  Bilge  W ater ...............................
Health and Environmental Effects .......................
for an  International Solution  ..........................
Foreign  Flags  ....................................
Inconsistent Regulations .............................
Protecting Developing Nations .........................
Preserving International W aters ........................
national Law .....................................
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ............
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships (M ARPOL)  .................................
Customary  International Law  ..........................
ovem ents  .. ..... ... ........ .. ..... . ... ... . . .. .. .
Radical Reformulations  .............................
1.  IM O  Enforcement ..............................
2.  Port State Enforcement ...........................
3.  Eliminate Flags of Convenience .....................
Voluntary  Compliance  ..............................
Crafting an International Response ......................
1.  U N C LO S  ...................................
2.  M A RPO L  ...................................
National Enforcement Alternatives ......................
lusion..........................................

* The author is a 2002 graduate of the Georgetown University Law Center and a former notes editor for this
journal. He would like to thank Alyse Freilich for all her love and support and Professor Lisa Heinzerling for her
valuable input on this note.

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