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35 Geo. J. Int'l L. 873 (2003-2004)
Sierra Leone: The Proving Ground for Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime

handle is hein.journals/geojintl35 and id is 883 raw text is: SIERRA LEONE: THE PROVING GROUND FOR
PROSECUTING RAPE AS A WAR CRIME
SHANA EATON*
TABLE oF CONTENTS
I.  INTRODUCTION  ....................................  874
II.  THE CONFLICT IN SIERRA LEONE  .......................  876
A.  Ten  Years of Civil War ...........................  876
B.  The Lome Peace Accord ...........................  879
C. Sexual Violence Against Women During the Conflict ...... 880
III. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROSECUTION OF RAPE AS A WAR
CRIM E  ..........................................  883
A. World War II and the Expansion of Humanitarian Law... 884
B.  Geneva  Convention  .............................  884
C. The International Criminal Tribunals ................ 887
IV. BALANCING INDIVIDUAL WOMEN'S NEEDS AGAINST COLLECTIVE
WOMEN'S HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS IN RAPE PROSECUTIONS:
LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE ICTY AND THE ICTR .......... 890
A. International Criminal Tribunal Practices and the Rules of
Evidence and Procedure That Affect Victims of Sexual
Violence Involved in Criminal Prosecution ............. 891
1. ICTY and ICTR Rule 96: Evidence in Cases of
Sexual Assault .............................  892
2. ICTY Rule 69/ ICTR Rule 34: Victims and Witness
Protection  Units ...........................  893
3. Other Relevant Procedural and Evidentiary
D evices  ..................................  895
4. Release of Therapy Records .................. 899
5. Cross Examination Techniques ............... 900
6. Discrepancies in the Treatment of Victims and
the  Accused  ..............................  901
7.  Sentencing  ...............................  902
B. The Purpose of International Tribunals and How They Can
Be Used To Develop Women's Human Rights ........... 902
* J.D. Georgetown University Law Center, May 2004. The author would like to thank
Professors Wendy Williams, Julia Ernst, David Luban, and Julie O'Sullivan for their insight and
encouragement in drafting this Article. Additionally, the author would like to thank her friends
and family, particularly Connie andJim Eaton, Mike Evett, Katie Fleming, Kate Bisordi, and her
housemates at 2414 for their continuing support throughout law school.

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