16 Geo. J. Int'l Aff. 6 (2015)
Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and UN Reform

handle is hein.journals/geojaf16 and id is 254 raw text is: 























Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and

UN Reform


Lise   Morje Howard


The  United Nations has the largest deployed force in the
world today.  More  than  ilo,ooo  UN  peacekeepers are
charged with keeping the peace in 16 operations across the
globe. In both scholarly work and in American public opin-
ion, UN peacekeeping has been assessed as largely successful.'
Peacekeepers have patrolled borders to prevent states from
going back to war, and they have helped to knit many coun-
tries back together after civil war. In a very few but horrific
and  memorable  instances, UN peacekeepers failed miser-
ably to implement their mandates (in Somalia, Rwanda, and
during the genocide in Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina).
As a result of those failures, peacekeepers have been granted
more  robust peace enforcement mandates to protect civil-
ians. However, in far more but less-noted places-Namibia,
El  Salvador, Mozambique,  Cambodia,   Croatia (Eastern
Slavonia), Timor Leste, Burundi, and Sierra Leone-peace-
keepers have successfully implemented complex mandates,
without using force, even when faced with armed resistance.
These countries are not uniformly model democracies today,
but full-scale civil war has not returned, and all of them have
benefitted from the deployment of large, multidimensional
UN  peacekeeping operations that have helped to implement


Lise Morj6
Howard   is an Associate
Professor in the Depart-
ment of Government at
Georgetown University.
She has also served as a
Jennings Randolph Senior
Fellow at the U.S. Institute
of Peace. Howard was the
founding director of the
Master of Arts Program
in Conflict Resolution at
Georgetown University,
and has published exten-
sively on UN peacekeeping
operations.


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