31 Fordham Urb. L.J. 1183 (2003-2004)
Addressing Urban Transportation Equity in the United States

handle is hein.journals/frdurb31 and id is 1201 raw text is: ADDRESSING URBAN TRANSPORTATION
EQUITY IN THE UNITED STATES*
Robert D. Bullard**
INTRODUCTION
In the United States, all communities do not receive the same
benefits from transportation advancements and investments.' De-
spite the heroic efforts and the monumental social and economic
gains made over the decades, transportation remains a civil rights
issue.' Transportation touches every aspect of where we live, work,
play, and go to school, as well as the physical and natural world.
Transportation also plays a pivotal role in shaping human interac-
tion, economic mobility, and sustainability.3
Transportation provides access to opportunity and serves as a
key component in addressing poverty, unemployment, and equal
opportunity goals while ensuring access to education, health care,
and other public services.' Transportation equity is consistent with
the goals of the larger civil rights movement and the environmental
* This article draws from and enhances ideas and research expressed in earlier
works. For further discussion, see Robert D. Bullard, New Routes to Transportation
Equity: Why Race Still Matters, 6 TRANSP. EQUITY (Fall/Winter 2003), available at
http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/transequnewsvol6.htm (last visited July 24, 2004); and Robert
D. Bullard et al., Transportation Justice for All: Addressing Equity in the 21st Century
(Oct. 23, 2002), available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/summit2/TranspJustice.pdf (last
visited July 24, 2004).
** Ware Professor of Sociology and Director, Environmental Justice Resource
Center, Clark Atlanta University.
1. See JUST TRANSPORTATION: DISMANTLING RACE AND CLASS BARRIERS TO
MOBILITY xiii-xiv (Robert D. Bullard & Glenn S. Johnson eds., 1997); Robert D. Bul-
lard & Glenn S. Johnson, Just Transportation, in JUST TRANSPORTATION, supra.
2. See Bullard & Johnson, supra note 1, at 8-9; John Lewis, Foreword to JUST
TRANSPORTATION, supra note 1, at xi, xi-xii; see also Mark Garrett & Brian Taylor,
Reconsidering Social Equity in Public Transit, 13 BERKELEY PLAN. J. 6, 10 (1999)
(The incongruence between transit ridership patterns and subsidy policies has both
social and special consequences that can potentially reinforce existing patterns of ra-
cial, ethnic, and   economic    segregation.), available  at http://www-
dcrp.ced.berkeley.edu/bpj/pdf/13-GarrettTaylor.pdf (last visited July 24, 2004).
3. See Bullard & Johnson, supra note 1, at 7-9. Transportation has a profound
impact on residential patterns, industrial growth, and physical and social mobility.
Id. at 8.
4. See Garrett & Taylor, supra note 2, at 6 (noting that [f]or ... 'transit depen-
dents' the continued availability of public mass transit is vital for access to jobs,
schooling, medical care, and other necessities of life).

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