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32 Fla. J. Int'l L. 1 (2020-2021)
Reforming the Law of Rape in the United States: Some Advice from the Antipodes

handle is hein.journals/fjil32 and id is 7 raw text is: REFORMING THE LAW OF RAPE IN THE UNITED STATES:
SOME ADVICE FROM THE ANTIPODES
Dr. Andrew Hemming*
This Article sets out a comprehensive model provision for the crime
of rape by defining the specified fault elements, such as knowledge and
recklessly, within the provision. In particular, the definition of recklessly
incorporates a requirement that the person took reasonable steps to
ascertain consent. The model provision also addresses the twin issues of
intoxication and mistake of fact, with the aim of making the fault
elements of the crime of rape more objective.
INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1
I.  AN AUSTRALIAN BENCHMARK FOR DEFINING
THE OFFENSE OF RAPE................................................................3
A. Australia's Criminal Law Landscape.................................3
B. The Consistency of the Vitiating Factors for Consent .......5
C. The Consistency of the Fault Elements for Rape .............10
1.  Fault E lem ents...........................................................11
2.  M  istake  of  Fact..........................................................13
3. Intoxication ...............................................................14
D. Proposed Model Provision for Rape ................................15
II. RAPE OFFENSES IN THE UNITED STATES...................................17
A. United States Model Penal Code......................................17
B. Impact and Judicial Interpretation of Model
Penal Code .......................................................................19
C.  Affirmative  Consent ..........................................................31
D. Affirmative Consent and Intoxication...............................34
III. MODEL. PROVISION FOR THE CRIME OF RAPE
IN THE UNITED STATES.............................................................40
CONCLUSION...........................................................................................45
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this Article is to set out a comprehensive model
provision for the crime of rape that can be incorporated into all criminal
jurisdictions in the United States. This is in part achieved by defining the
specified fault elements, such as knowledge and recklessness, within the
* Associate Professor in Law, University of Southern Queensland.

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