38 Fed. Comm. L.J. 317 (1986-1987)
The Control of Media-Related Imitative Violence

handle is hein.journals/fedcom38 and id is 325 raw text is: The Control Of Media-Related
Imitative Violence
E. Barrett Prettyman, Jr.* and Lisa A. Hook**
INTRODUCTION .......................................... 318
I. SOCIETAL PRESSURE AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH.. 320
A. Film and Comic Book Violence ................ 320
B.   Television Violence ............................. 321
1. The Modeling, or Instructional, Hypothesis
S......*. *..... .   * .......*..*........  327
2. The Attitudinal Change Hypothesis ........ 328
3. The Arousal, or Incitement, Hypothesis ... 329
II. METHODS OF CONTROLLING TELEVISED
VIOLENCE ....................................  330
A. Pre-Broadcast Control-Legislative and
Executive Restraints on Violent Programming.. 332
1. Legislative Control of Violent
Programming .............................. 332
2. Executive Control of Violent
Programming .............................. 333
a. The Licensing Process .................. 334
(i) The Communications Act ........... 334
(ii) Initial Licensing ................... 334
(iii) License Removal .................. 335
(iv) The Impact on Media Violence .... 337
b. The Fairness Doctrine .................. 338
c. Offensive Language ..................... 342
B. Post-Broadcast Control-Judicial Redress for
Violent Program-Related Injuries .............. 344
1. Elements of a Negligence Cause of Action. 347
a.  Duty  ...................................  347
 Partner, Hogan & Hartson, Washington, D.C.
* Senior Attorney, Viacom International Inc., New York City, N.Y.

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