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2 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 1 (2007)
Why Judges Should Admit Expert Testimony on the Unreliability of Eyewitness Testimony

handle is hein.journals/fecourtl2 and id is 9 raw text is: THE FEDERAL COURTS LAW REVIEW
Volume 2                                                            2007
Why Judges Should Admit Expert Testimony
on the Unreliability of Eyewitness Testimony
Henry F. Fradella*
1.     INTRODUCTION     ...........................................     2
II.    BIO-PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING MEMORY ...                  5
A .  Perception  ...........................................    5
B. The Three Phases of Memory .......................            6
1.  A cquisition  Phase ................................    7
2.  Retention  Phase  .................................     7
3.  R etrieval Phase  ..................................    8
C. Estimator Variables (Non-Systemic Variables) Im-
pacting Perception and Memory .....................         9
1. Time as an Event Factor .........................        9
2. Event Significance and Violence as Event
Factors  ...........................................   10
3. Arousal and Stress as Event Factors .............       11
4. Expectancies and Stereotypes as Witness
Factors  ...........................................   12
5. Age and Gender as Witness Factors .............         13
6. Cross-Over Factors Concerning Characteristics of
the  O ffender  .....................................  14
D. Systemic Factors Impacting Perception and
M em ory  .............................................    15
1. Lineup or Array Fairness ........................       16
2. Administration of Lineups and Photo Arrays ....         17
3. Reform of Problematic Systemic Variables ......         18
* M. Forensic Sci., The George Washington University; J.D., The George Washington
University; Ph.D., Arizona State University. Chair and Professor of Law and Criminal Jus-
tice, California State University, Long Beach. The author thanks Judge Alice R. Senechal;
Judge John M. Facciola; Judge Senechal's student intern, Ashley M. Samuelson; and Judge
Facciola's law clerks, Katie L. Anderson and Sara Podger, respectively, for their helpful
comments on and editing of this article.

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