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17 Eur. L.J. 1 (2011)

handle is hein.journals/eurlj17 and id is 1 raw text is: 


European Law Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 1-34.
C 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK
and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA




      A New Fundamental Freedom beyond

 Market Integration: Union Citizenship and

    its   Dynamics for Shifting the Economic

         Paradigm of European Integration


                        Ferdinand Wollenschliger*





Abstract: The  development of European  integration from an economic  to a political
community   has become  manifest not just in the continuous addition of non-economic
policy areas to the treaties. The introduction of Union citizenship (and its controversial
subsequent development in the European Court of Justice's jurisprudence) has also trig-
gered a paradigm  shift in one of the community's core areas, the concept of negative
integration hitherto intrinsically linked to the internal market. Thus, neither the individu-
al's quality as a market actor nor his/her involvement in a transnational economic activity
is a condition for enjoyment of the market freedoms' core guarantees, these being a right
of residence and a far-reaching claim to national treatment in other Member States, as
well as a prohibition on restrictions to the free movement of persons. A new fundamental
freedom  beyond  market integration ('Grundfreiheit ohne Markt') has emerged.  This
process, whose consequences for the welfare systems of the wealthier Member States have
been fiercely discussed for some time, however, also threatens to curtail severely the
regulatory autonomy  at the national level.


I   Le citoyen A la une de l'Europe
'Le citoyen a la une de l'Europe  -calls of this kind to build European integration
around  the citizen were first voiced at the beginning of the 1970s,2 before finding
prominent  expression in the institutionalisation of European citizenship under the
Treaty  of Maastricht. Despite its being initially deemed no more  than a symbolic


*  This article explores ideas first developed in the author's book Grundfreiheit ohne Markt. Die Herausbil-
   dung der Unionsbfirgerschaft im unionsrechtlichen Freizfigigkeitsregime (Mohr Siebeck, 2007), and is based
   on a German article published under the title 'Die Unionsbilrgerschaft und ihre Dynamik ffir den
   Integrationsprozess jenseits des Marktes' (2009) Zeitschrift ffir europarechtliche Studien 1. An earlier
   version of this article was presented at the Eleventh Biennial International Conference of the European
   Union Studies Association (EUSA) in Los Angeles, USA in April 2009.
   This quotation echoes the title of an article by A. Lhoest, 'Le citoyen A la une de l'Europe', (1975) Revue
   Du Marchi Commun Et De L'Union Europdenne 431.
   2 Cf for an account of the rise of the idea of a 'Citizens' Europe' F. Wollenschldiger, Grundfreiheit ohne
   Markt. Die Herausbildung der Unionsbfirgerschaft im unionsrechtlichen Freizfigigkeitsregime (Mohr
   Siebeck, 2007), at 91 et seq.

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