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13 Eur. J. Criminology 3 (2016)

handle is hein.journals/eujcrim13 and id is 1 raw text is: 



                                                                             European

Article                                                                      Criminology

                                                                European journal of Criminology
                                                                        2016, Vol. 13(1) 3-28
Fem     ale    desistance: A             review                         @ The Author(s) 2015
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of   the    literature                                       sagepub.co.ul/journalsPermissions.nav
                                                                DOI: 10.1177/1477370815597251
                                                                            euc.sagepub.corn
                                                                              OSAGE

Elanie Rodermond
VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law
Enforcement, The Netherlands


Candace Kruttschnitt
University of Toronto, Canada


Anne-Marie Slotboom
VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Catrien CJH Bijieveld
Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, The Netherlands; VU University
Amsterdam, The Netherlands



Abstract
To  examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female
offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences
in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important
for females, in addition to economic independence, the absence of drugs and individual agency.
Gender  differences are found for the influence of children, supportive relationships, employment
and the absence of criminal peers. This review shows that male-based theories of desistance seem
applicable to females as well. Furthermore, results underscore the importance of considering
how  individual and social factors interact during the process of desistance. Implications for future
research and for strategies for promoting desistance are discussed.


Keywords
Desistance, females, gender differences, recidivism, re-entry


Introduction

Along  with the recognition that the vast majority of criminal offenders eventually stop
committing   crimes, several theoretical insights regarding desistance from crime  have


Corresponding  author:
Elanie Rodermond, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan
1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Email: e.rodermond@vu.nl

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