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15 Envtl. L. 679 (1984-1985)
Vessel-Source Oil Pollution and Marpol 73/78: An International Success Story

handle is hein.journals/envlnw15 and id is 691 raw text is: COMMENTS
As industrialization on a global scale has increased, so has
the amount of noxious and hazardous substances transported by
sea. This results in an increase in the discharge of such sub-
stances by ships into the marine environment. These substances
are primarily oil and petroleum products. Consequently, interna-
tional concern for the operational and accidental discharges from
these ships has intensified. The International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973' and its 1978 Protocol,'
which became effective on October 2, 1983, is an international re-
sponse to the threat of contamination of the marine environment.
The deleterious effects on the marine environment and man-
kind, caused by oil, are well documented.' If the discharge of pe-
troleum products occurs in a coastal or estuary area, the immedi-
* Student, Northwestern School of Law of Lewis and Clark College; B.S.
1976, University of Oregon.
1. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, No-
vember 2, 1973, 12 I.L.M. 1319 [hereinafter cited as MARPOL 73].
2. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Preven-
tion of Pollution from Ships, 1973, done Feb. 17, 1978, 17 I.L.M. 546 [hereinafter
cited as MARPOL 73/78].
3. See IMCO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN Joint Group of Experts
on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP), Impact of Oil on the
Marine Environment, 6 REP. STUD. GESAMP (1977) [hereinafter cited as GESAMP
Study]; Interagency Comm. on Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and
Monitoring, Marine Oil Pollution: Federal Program Review (April, 1981) [herein-
after cited as Federal Program Review].

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