About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

52 Emory L.J. 71 (2003)
International Intersectionality: A Theoretical and Pragmatic Exploration of Women's International Human Rights Violations

handle is hein.journals/emlj52 and id is 83 raw text is: INTERNATIONAL INTERSECTIONALITY: A THEORETICAL
AND PRAGMATIC EXPLORATION OF WOMEN'S
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
Johanna E. Bond*
Essential difference allows those who rely on it to rest
reassuringly on its gamut of fixed notions. Any mutation in
identity, in essence, in regularity, and even in physical place
poses a problem, if not a threat, in terms of classification and
control.   If you can't locate the other, how          are you to locate
yourself?'
Ardent identity      politics  dominate    the   world    stage.    As Afghanistan
struggles to overcome Taliban rule, the international community attempts to
help rebuild a nation torn apart by violent ethnic clashes.2 Recent eruptions of
violence between the Hindu majority and the Muslim minority in the Indian
state of Gujarat have focused international attention on communal conflicts in
the region.3 In both cases, and many more like them, women's bodies become
* Visiting Associate Professor of Law and Assistant Director, International Women's Human Rights
Clinic, Georgetown University Law Center. LL.M. Georgetown University Law Center; M.A. University of
Minnesota; J.D. University of Minnesota. I am deeply indebted to Vanessa Brocato, Elizabeth Bruch, Deborah
Epstein, J.D. King, Lisa Kois, Mary Hartnett, and Wendy Webster Williams for their insightful comments on
earlier versions of this Article. I am also grateful for the superb research assistance of Anne Daugherty-Leiter,
Nicole Smith, and Rachel Vogelstein, without whom this Article would not have been possible. Marci
Hoffman, Georgetown's International and Foreign Law Librarian, also provided invaluable research
assistance.  A Georgetown University Law Center faculty research and writing grant supported the
development of this Article.
1 Trinh T. Minh-ha, No Master Territories, in THE POST-COLONIAL STUDIES READER 217 (Bill Ashcroft
et al. eds., 1995) (citing TRINH T. MINH-HA, WHEN THE MOON WAXES RED: REPRESENTATION, GENDER AND
CULTURAL POLITICS (1991)).
2 See, e.g., HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH BRIEFING PAPER, TAKING COVER: WOMEN IN POST-TALIBAN
AFGHANISTAN (May 2002), available at http://hrw.org/backgrounder/wrd/afghan-women-2k2.pdf.
3
Indian government officials have acknowledged that since February 27, 2002, more than 850
people have been killed in communal violence in the state of Gujarat, most of them Muslims.
Unofficial estimates put the death toll as high as 2,000.... The attacks against Muslims in
Gujarat have been actively supported by state government officials and by the police.
Smita Narula, We Have No Orders to Save You : State Participation and Complicity in Communal Violence
in Gujarat, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, Apr. 2002, at 4, available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/india/
gujarat.pdf.

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most