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20 Eur. J. Crime Crim. L. & Crim. Just. 415 (2012)
Tobacco Smuggling: A Review of the Literature

handle is hein.journals/eccc20 and id is 431 raw text is: MARTIN US
NIJHOFF                    European Journal of Crime,
PUBLISHERS       Criminal Law and Criminal fustice 20 (2012) 415-444  brill.cmleccl
Tobacco Smuggling: A Review of the Literature
Xavier Duncan I'Hoiry*
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Tobacco smuggling has received considerable academic coverage and this paper
seeks to bring together the dominant themes and features of the research litera-
ture by way of an introduction to this market place. The first section seeks to
contextualise the rest of the article by providing a brief discussion of the alleged
growing physical and economic threat of smuggled tobacco and its reach across the
globe. The second section presents the results of European-based empirical studies
outlining smuggling/bootlegging methods as the typology of offenders and why
they partake in this illegal activity. The third section considers the structures of
smuggling, how actors and groups work together and the types of collaborations
evidenced in case file analyses. The fourth section examines the socially embedded
nature of tobacco smuggling across the entirety of the market place and considers
why this ambivalence has developed, thanks to a combination of socio-economic
factors. The fifth section analyses the interface between legal and illegal actors
in smuggling enterprises and includes a discussion of the complicity of tobacco
manufacturers in smuggling. Finally, the sixth section considers the existence of
violence in tobacco smuggling and questions whether it reflects the alleged centrality
of violence in other illicit markets.
In its previous life, this literature review formed part of this author's doctoral
thesis. The thesis concerned a European-based tobacco smuggling enterprise
and sought to critically assess the European tobacco smuggling market place.
Consequently, the literature discussed below focuses heavily on European empirical
* E-mail: x.lhoiry@sheffield.ac.uk

@ Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012

DOI: 10. 1163/157181712X667431

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