2 Duke F. L. & Soc. Change 125 (2010)
To Be Muslim or Muslim-Looking in America: A Comparative Exploration of Racial and Religious Prejudice in the 21st Century

handle is hein.journals/dukef2 and id is 125 raw text is: TO BE MUSLIM OR MUSLIM-LOOKING IN AMERICA:
A COMPARATIVE EXPLORATION OF RACIAL AND
RELIGIOUS PREJUDICE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
SHERYLL CASHINt
I.  IN TRO D U CTIO N   .......................................................................................................... 125
II. POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS FOR DIFFERENTIAL BIAS AGAINST MUSLIMS ................. 129
A. Islamophobia and Mainstream Journalism that Propagates
Stereotyp es  ............................................................................................... 131
B. The Impact of Anti-Muslim Media on Bias Against Muslims .............. 132
C. The Comparative Experience of African-Americans ............................. 133
III. W H AT  TO  D o  A BOUT  IT  .......................................................................................... 137
I. INTRODUCTION
This Essay begins with a confession. In taking implicit association tests
(IATs) designed to measure my unconscious attitude toward two particular
demographic groups, I discovered that I, an African-American, harbored a
slight automatic preference for Europeans over blacks and for other people
over Arab-Muslims. Both of these results were contrary to my professed or
conscious assertions of neutrality. Why would a pro-integration scholar who
seeks to promote cross-racial understanding and inclusion exhibit such implicit
biases? And why is it that a majority of others who take these tests register
similar implicit biases? The point of my confession is to underscore the fact of
widespread unconscious bias. Unfortunately, a large body of evidence from
experimental psychology demonstrates such bias on the part of whites and
minorities against racial minorities, especially African-Americans.1 This is in
contrast to a dramatic reduction in explicit or reported bias against blacks.
Indeed, there    is  much    evidence   to  support   the   conclusion  that a
t Professor of Law, Georgetown Law, and author of The Failures of Integration: How Race and
Class are Undermining the American Dream (PublicAffairs, 2005). This Essay was written in anticipation
of a symposium held at Duke University School of Law in February 2010 about the Muslim
experience of discrimination. Professor Cashin would like to thank Craig Francis Dukin for his
invaluable research assistance.
1. Lawrence D. Bobo & Camille Z. Charles, Race in the American Mind: From the Moynihan Report
to the Obama Candidacy, 621 ANNALS AM. ACAD. POL. & Soc. Sci. 243, 253 (2009). See generally Jerry
Kang, The Trojan Horses of Race, 118 HARV. L. REv. 1489 (2005).

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