About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

27 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 1 (2016-2017)

handle is hein.journals/djcil27 and id is 1 raw text is: 












    THE CONSTITUTION V. THE CONVENTION:
  THE EVOLUTION OF THE COURT-MANDATED
  RIGHT TO COUNSEL IN THE UNITED STATES
                          AND EUROPE

            SARA  SUN  BEALE*  AND RICHARD   E. MYERS II**

                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION              ................................... ......... 2
I. THE CONSTITUTION AND THE CONVENTION               .......   ............ 5
II. ENFORCING   THE RIGHT  TO  COUNSEL   IN THE UNITED   STATES  ........ 8
      A. Due Process as a Basis for the Right to Counsel...   ................... 9
           1. The Right to Publicly-Compensated Counsel in a Criminal Case... 9
           2. The Test for the Adequacy of Counsel.     .........   .......... 10
           3. The Reality of the Right to Counsel........................... 11
      B. Barriers to Enforcement                   ................................ 12
           1. The Limitations Imposed by Federalism ......        ........... 12
           2. The Case or Controversy Limitation .................... 14
           3. The Limitations of Institutional Reform Litigation................... 15
           4. The Interaction of Legal and Political Barriers...   ............ 17
III. ENFORCING  THE  RIGHT  TO COUNSEL IN   EUROPE...       ............ 17
      A.  The Convention's Original Enforcement Mechanism...................... 19
      B. The Convention's Current Enforcement Regime           .................. 19
           1. Amendments to the Convention.......................   20
           2. Administrative Procedures               ....................... 21
           3. Judicial Enforcement.. ....................    ........... 22
              a. Pilot Judgments   ................................ 23
              b. Other Judicial Techniques............    .................. 24
           4. Actions by Other Institutions of the Council of Europe............ 24
           5. Pushback: Challenges to the ECtHR's Legitimacy ................... 24
      C. The European Union Directive ...........................   25
      D. Evaluating the Implementation of ECtHR Decisions          ............ 27


Copyright C 2016 Sara Sun Beale and Richard E. Myers II
The authors would like to thank Jacqueline Hodgson and the participants at the Future of Adversarial and
Inquisitorial Systems Conference, Warwick University, United Kingdom, for their helpful comments on
an earlier version of this article. We owe special gratitude to Professors Thomas Weigend and Laurence
Helfer for their comments and assistance.
      * Charles L.B. Lowndes Professor, Duke University School of Law.
      ** Henry Brandis Distinguished Professor of Law, University of North Carolina School of
Law.


1

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most