10 Duke Envtl. L. & Pol'y F. 221 (1999-2000)
Framing Environmental Policy Instrument Choice

handle is hein.journals/delp10 and id is 233 raw text is: Duke Environmental
Law & Policy Forum

Volume X                Spring 2000                Number 2

FRAMING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
INSTRUMENT CHOICE
KENNETH R. RiCHARDS*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction .........................................                      222
II. Evaluation  Criteria ........................................................................................... 226
A .  Standard  Treatment .................................................................................... 226
B. Expansion and Reformulation of the Evaluation Criteria .......................... 227
I. Taxonomy of Environmental Policy Instruments ........................................... 230
A .  Standard  Treatment .................................................................................... 230
B. Reformulation of the Taxonomy .................................................................. 232
1. Principles of a Taxonomy ............................................................ 232
2. Dimension 1: Fundamental Role of Government-Entitlement
Assigner vs. Regulator ...................................................................... 232
3. Instruments for Implementing Environmental Goals: The Regulator
R ole  .................................................................................................. 236
a. Dimension 2: Locus of Discretion ...................................................... 237
b. Dimension 3: Distribution of Abatement and Environmental Damage
C osts  ......................................................................................................... 237
* Assistant Professor, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Indiana University,
Bloomington, Indiana. J.D., University of Pennsylvania Law School; Ph.D., The Wharton
School, University of Pennsylvania; M.S.C.E. & B.S.C.E., Technological Institute, Northwestern
University; B.A., Duke University.
The author would like to thank Elizabeth Bailey, Robert Hahn, Kerry Krutilla, Eliza-
beth Malone, Thomas McGartland, Steve Rayner, Barry Solomon, and Dennis Yao for provid-
ing helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article. Michael Armstrong and Swati Sheladia
provided valuable research assistance. All views expressed here, and any errors, are the
author's responsibility alone.
Please direct questions or comments to kenricha@indiana.edu. This article is also
available at <http://www.lawv.duke.edu/joumalsIODELPFRichards>.

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