22 Critical Soc. Pol'y 5 (2002)

handle is hein.journals/critsplcy22 and id is 1 raw text is: 

    University of Bradford
    University of Leeds


A major development  in welfare states is a shift away from one of the
key principles underpinning their welfare provision: the assumption
of a male breadwinner/female homemaker-carer   family model  (even
though  the reality was often different to this). The question that now
emerges is what sort of gender contract can replace this model in the
resettling of welfare regimes? Will welfare programmes assume  the
involvement  of all adults in paid work, tying entitlements increas-
ingly to employment,  or even making  them conditional upon being
in paid work (as, for example, in workfare programmes in the UK and
USA)?  Who  in this case takes responsibility for the care of children or
older people? Or are different family models possible in which both
paid work and care are shared between men and women, perhaps with
state support for collective caring (as in some emerging  northern
European  models)?  What   do  these alternatives mean for gender
equality or women's autonomy? What  influences the negotiations that
women   and men  make  about care and employment   responsibilities,
and the preferences they have? What  are the outcomes for different
groups in the emerging  work/care regimes? Whose  voices are being
heard? These  are the sort of questions that were considered at an
international conference at the University of Leeds in January 2001,
and revised versions of the papers given are presented here.'
    Nancy  Fraser (1997) has proposed three alternative ideal types
that might follow the demise of the male breadwinner  regimes; the
Universal Breadwinner  Model,  the Caregiver Parity Model and  the
Universal Caregiver Model.  The  Universal  Breadwinner  Model  is
based on gender equity in employment and assumes the capacity of all
ablebodied adults to support themselves and their families through
the market. To work, it requires equal opportunities in employment,
the institutionalization of care by the state and/or in the market, and
benefits attached to employment. The Caregiver Parity Model aims to

Copyright @ 2002 Critical Social Policy Ltd 70 0261-0183 (200202) 22:1
SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi), Vol. 22(1): 5-11; 021365


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