5 Correction 1 (1935)

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VOLUME 5                       ELMIRA, N. Y.  JANUARY, 1935

N AN effort to develop a plan for a solution of
the time old problem of competition between the
products of prison labor and those of outside indus-
try, a committee composed of Judge Joseph N.
Ulman, chairman, of Baltimore, Md., Frank Tan-
nenbaum and W. Jett Lauck, has submitted a report
to the National Recovery Board of an investigation
of the subject directed by Presidential order.
The committee was directed to inquire particu-
larly into the controversy between prison industries
and the cotton garment industry and to study the
Prison Labor Compact especially as to the enforce-
ment of the established staildards of competition
with private industry.
After hearing witnesses representing industry,
organized labor, prison management, NRA officials
and others, the committee finds:
The Prison Labor Compact has not solved the problem
of prison labor and will not solve it permanently and con-
The compact was the product of a genuine desire to
solve a hard problem. It has been administered fairly by
persons of the highest integrity. Any past errors in its
administration have been only such as are inevitable in the
development of a new instrumentality.'
The only true solution of the prison labor problem is one
that will effectually remove the products of prison labor from
the ordinary channels of competitive trade and commerce.
This means the State Use System.
The present and potential competition of prison indus-
try with the Cotton Garment Industry has created a special
and acute problem that calls for immediate attention and
The committee states that the principal fric-
tion and the most irritating conflicts have arisen
between the Prison Labor Authority and the Cotton
Garment Authority. This is due neither to accident
nor to merely personal differences.
The Cotton Garment Industry is badly over-
expanded. This has been brought about in part
through expectations aroused by the passage of the
Hawes-Cooper Act. As a result, prison competi-
tion, even on its present reduced scale, actually
endangers the life of the Cotton Garment Code. The
(Continued on Page 5)

HE Commission for the Study of the Wduca-
tional Problems of Penal Institutions for Youth,
appointed by Governor Lehman and headed by Pro-
fessor N. L. Engelhardt of Teachers College, Colum-
bia University, has submitted to the Governor a
preliminary report stating certain definite conclu-
sions which have been reached and making recom-
mendations for legislation which would establish a
Division of Education in the Department of Cor-
rection. For the development of such a Division
the Commission recommends a budget of approxi-
mately $140,000.
The Commission's point of view as set forth
in the report follows:
Your Commission starts with the premise that the
ultimate and basic function of the reformatory or prison,
after the demands of safety and security have been met, is
the rehabilitation of those committed to its care, is their
re-education, and, if possible, their restoration to community
life upon release as normal, social beings. The prison inmate
is primarily an adult in need of education and only second-
arily in need of reform.  Experience indicates that this
cannot be accomplished through mere incarceration, or
through purely punitive procedures. Social readjustments
will not occur automatically as a result of the denial of
liberty and exclusion from normal social relations. The
problem of the correctional institution is the re-fashioning
of character and the adjustment of disturbed personality
patterns. To accomplish this end, all of the resources of
medicine, psychology, psychiatry, penology, religion, instruc-
tion, and wholesome social living must be utilized.
In the largest sense of the term, the task is that of
education. This education, however, must.be broadly con-
ceived to reach the fundamental conditions and circumstances
that underlie the anti-social patterns of behavior. Insti-
tutional life must reach the heart as well as the mind of the
inmate; his emotions together with his intellect must be
re-educated. Faulty habits must be corrected, anti-social
attitudes modified, and antagonisms eliminated. The indi-
vidual must be trained for a constructive vocational and
wholesome leisure life. Moreover, through an effective sys,
tem of guidance and placement he must be assured of eco-
nomic security for a reasonable period after his release.
In such program, which we regard as essential in the
reformative situation, education cannot be taken as a mere
gesture, nor an institutional luxury. Expenditures for an
efficient educational program constitute the best type of
social insurance. The school and the shop must be regarded
as vital agencies in the rehabilitation set-up.  In their
activities, together with those of the clinic and the recrea-
(Continued on Page 5)


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