11 Correction 1 (1941)

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VOLUME 11                    OSSINING, N. Y.

I

JANUARY, 1941                NUMBER 1

PROBATION WORK ANALYZED         THE 1940 YEARBOOK

T  HERE were 30.2:18 persons oin probation in New
York Siate a the close of 19:19, the largest number
since the State Probation Conmission began collecting
statistics in 1907, wheat there were only 1,672. On June
30, 1939 there were 1,857 more persons on probation
than in all public correct ional institutions. The aver-
age per capita cost of probation for the year 1939 was
$51.90 as compared with $59.04 Ior incarceration in
prisons or refornmaturies, .56-8.19 in penitentiaries,
$754.78 in jails and .86Il.001 in institutions for delin-
quent children. In considering the cost of probation
as compared with institutional care, the fat that pro-
bationers are able to continue at their work, support-
ing families who in many instances otherwise would
become public charges, should not be overlooked. Even
though the less tangible but still tremendous saving in
good citizenship be disregarded, says the Division of
Probation, State Departnment of Correction in its an-
nual report, the soundness of the probation system
from. the point of view of return on investment is a
proper and sensible reason for public support of ade-
quate probation service.
During 1939. the courts placed 20,260 persons on
probation. 5,50(6 children and 14,754 adults, the largest
number since 1933. Children's and domestic relations
courts placed 43.9 per vent of the cases. courts of
cities, towns and villages 41.2 per cent, and county
courts 14.9 per cent.
In 77.2 per cent of the eases preliminary investi-
gations were made by probation officers before pro-
bation was granted, and in 2.6 per cent similar investi-
gations were made by soine other agency. The Division
of Probation believes that such investigations should
be made in all rases, but its figures show that in 20.2
per cent of the cases probation was ordered without
an investigation.
Most of tihe offenders placed on probation, 87.7 per
cent, were on probation for the first time: 9.2 per cent
for. the second time, and onlY :1.1 per cent had been on
probttion , ree or Iore times.
or (ae 11.754 adults placed on probation 90 per
cet wr-t. convicted of misdeLeanors. the offenses most
(Continued on i'age 12)

PRISON Administration-An Eduenational lrocess
1is the title oi the cover of the 1910 Yearbook of
the ('onanittee on Education of the American Prison
Association. The editorial committee rsponsiIle for
this splendid contribution to the field (Df correctional
education consists of Walter 31. Wallack, Warden of
Wallkill lrison, editor; Howard L. r.iggs. Assistant
Direclor of' Edueation in charge of I.,rational Edu-
cation, Staite Department or Correction, associate edi-
tor; E. R. ('ass. Secretary, American Prison Associa-
tion and member of the tate Connission of Correc-
tion; the late William E. Grady, Associate Superinten-
dent of Schools of New York    0itv: Glenn 31. Kendall,
Director. Division of Education, Stae Department of
Correction; and Austin H . aac('ormick. Executive Di-
rector, The Osborne Association, Inc., New York.
Sanford Bates, member of the New York Ntate
IParole 1i0ard, in the foreword writes:
This volume is primarily for the wardens of our prisons,
the superintendents of our reformatories, the keepers of our
three thousand jails and the staffs of our penal institutions.
Without In the least minimizing the necessity for ade-
quately financed school s3stems in every penal institution,
this Second Yearbook attenipas to point out in detail the op-
portunities for guidance and Instruction of prisoners which
are inherent in the administration of the prison itself.
It will he recognized, then, that this volume is practical
in nature. A large portion of it Is made up of the actual
experience of men engaged in prison work. There Is an absence
of untried or theoretical conjecture or academic speculation.
This should commend it Io administrators with limited resources
anxious to run a good institution.
They will ie under obligation to the V'lminittee on Educa-
tion, to the staff of the New York State Department of ('or-
rection. and to the able ('oaission on Education in Corree-
tional Institutions in the State of New York under the chair-
manship of Dr. N. L. Engelhardt of Columbina University for
the painstaking and intelligent conpilation of material.
In the preface Dr. Vallack. Editor of the Year-
book, writes:
Here is the Second Yearbook of the Imrniittee. In
this book we hav tried to present certain practical aspects
of the educational problem In penal institutions. The dis-
cussions are written in practical lanjnacn'- by practical men
who have found practical solutions for the problems which
they lresent.
(Coutinued on PaLur 11)

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