41 Conn. L. Rev. 305 (2008-2009)
Form-Based Codes: Measured Success through Both Mandatory and Optional Implementation

handle is hein.journals/conlr41 and id is 307 raw text is: CONNECTICUT
LAW REVIEW
VOLUME 41                  NOVEMBER 2008                    NUMBER 1
Note
FORM-BASED CODES: MEASURED SUCCESS THROUGH BOTH
MANDATORY AND OPTIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
JOHN M. BARRY
The conventional zoning practices that became widely accepted in the later
part of the twentieth century have drastically changed the way American cities and
towns have been physically planned and developed. Conventional zoning has
encouraged suburban sprawl through its promotion of low density and single use
development. The consequences of this type of zoning are not limited to the
physical design of the neighborhoods in which we live and work. Sprawl has also
changed the way in which Americans conduct their daily lives as we increasingly
rely on the automobile to commute to school and work or run errands. Not only is
this mode of transportation extremely costly in the midst of the current energy
crisis, but isolated automobile travel further limits public interaction, which would
otherwise occur if cities and towns developed in a more traditional form.
Form-based codes present a promising zoning alternative to sprawl-inducing
conventional ordinances. Unlike conventional zoning, form-based codes place a
primary emphasis in the design-rather than the use--of buildings and encourage
higher density, mixed use development. The physical result is a more pedestrian-
friendly community, mimicking the way cities and towns have traditionally
developed.
Recently, cities across the United States have grown weary of conventional
zoning ordinances and have begun to adopt form-based codes.      Some
municipalities have entirely abandoned their conventional zoning ordinances and
have adopted mandatory form-based codes, while other cities have implemented
an optional format in which the individual developer is given the right to choose to
build according to the conventional ordinance or the form-based code. Although
mandatory and optional form-based codes differ in how they are applied, both
formats have proven successful where adopted.

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