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32 Conn. L. Rev. 381 (1999-2000)
Title IX and the Contact Sports Exemption: Gender Stereotypes in a Civil Rights Statute

handle is hein.journals/conlr32 and id is 397 raw text is: CONNECTICUT
LAW REVIEW

VOLUME 32                          WINTER 2000                            NUMBER 2
Title IX and the Contact Sports Exemption:
Gender Stereotypes in a Civil Rights Statute
SUZANNE SANGREe
I. INTRODUCTION
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972' guarantees that no
person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from
participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination
under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assis-
tance.'2 While widely considered a grand success, Title IX's guarantee of
*  Visiting Professor Washington College of Law American Unh'el, 1998; LLA4 Harvard
Law School; JD, CUNY Law School at Queens. The author thanes Washington College of Law for
generous research support, a collegial environment, and challenging lngpiration during the tal pre-
sentedon this topic. University of Maryland Lawfaculty Jana Singer, David Bogen, and Dzvid H)7ran
gave invaluable insight. Professors Martha Minow and .Slvia Law provded precious support and
brilliant vision. Professor Toby Ditz provided criticalfeedback and research assistance on the section
Historical and Ideological Clues as did Professor Don Sabo of D'Youville College concerning the
section Why it Matters.  Alison Wetherfield and my former law professor Phil Nash critiqued the
entire article. The author also thanks law students Sean Dillon Amy Hay, Julie &mnon, Sarina
Glaze, andAnthony Matricciani for invaluable research assistance. Nadine Feller gava espert edito-
rial comments on the Narrative Section. as did Susan B. Feathers on the entire article. As alwoys,
Douglas L Colbert made it all possible through his loving encouragement and expert tlrz n'.mage-
mnent skils. This article is dedicated to the best coaches of my chldAoo4 Ferdle lWandmell of Taft
SchooL a=4 especially, Dr. M. Huyett Sangree. Jr., myfather.
1. 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681-88 (1994).
2. Id. § 1681(a).

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