32 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 429 (2000-2001)
Holding Individual Leaders Responsible for Violations of Customary International Law: The U.S. Bombardment of Cambodia and Laos

handle is hein.journals/colhr32 and id is 437 raw text is: HOLDING INDIVIDUAL LEADERS
RESPONSIBLE FOR VIOLATIONS OF
CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW:
THE U.S. BOMBARDMENT
OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS
by Nicole Barrett*
So we ended the Cambodia operation still on the long route
out of Vietnam, confronting an implacable enemy and an
equally implacable domestic opposition. The ultimate vic-
tims of our domestic anguish were the gentle people of
Cambodia.1
I. INTRODUCTION
There have been many terrible abuses of humanitarian law
and customary international law stemming from official policy deci-
sions that loom large in history-the Holocaust of the Jews and the
dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during
World War II, to name only two. In response to the massive destruc-
tion of World War II and in hope of preventing future wars, the in-
ternational community formed the United Nations (U.N.) and began
codifying longstanding principles of international law in treaty form.
In 1949, the three existing Geneva Conventions that codified princi-
*    B.A., Stanford University (1991); M.I.A., School of International and Public
Affairs, Columbia University (1995); J.D., Columbia University School of Law (ex-
pected 2001); Articles Editor, Columbia Human Rights Law Review (2000-2001). I ap-
preciate the assistance of Reed Brody, Michael Ratner, Professor Jose Alvarez, and
Shana Fulton in the preparation of this paper.
1.   Henry Kissinger, White House Years 517 (1979). Kissinger argues that
Cambodians were harmed by the premature withdrawal of United States military op-
erations from Cambodia at the orders of the U.S. Congress.

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 2,700 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Access to this content requires a subscription. Please visit the following page to request a quote or trial:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?