84 Cornell L. Rev. 895 (1998-1999)
Confronting Developmental Barriers to the Empowerment of Child Clients

handle is hein.journals/clqv84 and id is 930 raw text is: CONFRONTING DEVELOPMENTAL BARRIERS TO
THE EMPOWERMENT OF CHILD CLIENTS
Emily Busst
Im  ODUC   ON  .................................................  896
I.  BACKGROUND    ...........................................  899
II. DEF I ING EwrowEFmNr ................................ 907
A. Empowering Adult Clients .......................... 908
1. Transforming Clients' Role in Litigation ............ 909
2. Transforming Clients' Self-Presentation ............. 910
B. Empowering Child Clients .......................... 913
1. Power Shifts Unexperienced by the Child ............ 914
2. Power Shifts Experienced by the Child ............... 916
III. TmE DEVELOPMiENTAL LIiRATURE ....................... 918
A.  An  Initial Caveat ....................................  918
B. The Capacity for Empowerment .................... 920
1. Children's Developing Understanding of Self and
Other  ...........................................  921
2. Children's Understanding of Self and Other in the
Legal Process .....................................  924
a.  The Capacity To Experience Influence over the
Litigation ....................................  926
i.  The Problem of Distortion ................. 926
ii. The Problem of Misattribution ............. 934
b. The Capacity To Experience Influence over
Perceptions of Self ............................ 936
3. From Understanding to Execution .................. 942
a.  The Capacity To Act .......................... 942
b. Valuing Control .............................. 944
c.  Confining Empowerment ...................... 945
4. The Limits of Lawyering .......................... 948
IV.  IMPLICATIONS  ...........................................  950
A. Implications for the Representation of Children .... 950
t Assistant Professor of Law, The University of Chicago. My thanks to William Buss,
Elizabeth Garrett, Theresa Glennon, Jack Goldsmith, Dan Kahan, Bret Koplow, Susan
Mangold, Tracey Meares, Wallace Mlyniec, Martha Nussbaum, Eric Posner, Robert
Schwartz, Elizabeth Scott, David Strauss, Cass Sunstein, Michael Wald, Barbara Wood-
house, and the participants at The University of Chicago Law School's faculty workshop for
their helpful comments on an earlier draft, and to Laura Clinton, Yael Karabelnik, and
Christopher Snell for their excellent research assistance. The Arnold and Frieda Shure
Research Fund and the Max Rheinstein Research Fund in Family Law provided support for
this research.

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