3 Climate L. 1 (2012)

handle is hein.journals/climatla3 and id is 1 raw text is: Climate Law 3 (2012) 1-24                                                              1
DOI 10.3233/CL-2012-054
IOS Press
Curbing CO2 emissions from aviation: Is the
airline industry headed for defeat?
Doaa Abdel Motaal*
Abstract. Two industries have been historically exempt from climate mitigation efforts under the Kyoto
Protocol: the international aviation and maritime sectors. This article focuses on the aviation industry,
looking at how its exceptionalism under Kyoto has fashioned its response to the climate crisis. It is a story
of a global industry that has sought to fend off regulation of its CO2 emissions at the global level, until faced
with the unilateral imposition by the European Union of its emissions trading scheme on both domestic
and international aviation. The EU aviation scheme advantages some carriers while disadvantaging others.
Rushed responses by the industry to combat the EU aviation scheme at the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) have not helped matters, with a solution found at ICAO that would distort intra-
industry competition, without necessarily fixing the environmental problem. Legal challenges to the EU
scheme in the European Court of Justice by the industry have not borne fruit either, as the industry's
arguments have largely been overturned. Today, the industry pays a high price for a muddled approach at
the international level to curbing its emissions. Is the lesson that global industries must actively pursue
global solutions?
Article 2.2 of the Protocol states that:
The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse
gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunker fuels, working
through the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization,
* Doaa Abdel Motaal <Doaa.AbdelMotaal@wto.org> is Counsellor in the Office of the Director-General of the
World Trade Organization. This article is written in her personal capacity and does not in any way reflect the views
of the organization or of its members.
The Kyoto Protocol, available at <http://unfecc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf>.

1878-6553/12/$27.50 @ 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

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