36 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 359 (2011)
Shopping for State Constitutions: Gift Clauses as Obstacles to State Encouragement of Carbon Sequestration

handle is hein.journals/cjel36 and id is 363 raw text is: Shopping for State Constitutions:
Gift Clauses as Obstacles to
State Encouragement of
Carbon Sequestration
NicholasJ. Houpt*
Introduction          ..................................................360
I. Background..        .................................   ...........365
A. Climate Change and the Role of CCS ............................365
B. CCS Risks and Liability Concerns   .................       .......368
1. CCS Risks          .................................... .....368
2. Liability for CCS Risks   ...............................369
3. Effects of Liability on CCS Development and the Government's
Role...............................                  ..............372
II. The Gift Clause Obstacle to CCS Indemnification...      ..............378
A. Introduction to Gift Clauses    ............................379
B. History of Gift Clauses.............    .........       ...........381
C. Unique Facets of CCS Are Especially Troublesome for Gift
Clauses.....................................................384
D. Other Financing Mechanisms Avoid the Constitutional Problems
of Indemnification        ..............................   ......388
III. Strict Gift Clauses Strike Down Indemnification; Other Solutions ..389
A. New York's Indemnification Proposal    ...............     ......390
B. New York's Gift Clause Jurisprudence   ..........................391
C. NYSERDA's Precedents Fail to Justify CCS Indemnification ..........394
D. Eminent Domain's Public Purpose Requirement Is Neither
Analogous nor Does It Support the Constitutionality of CCS
Indemnification         ...............................     .......396
E. Consideration as a Way to Escape the Gift Clause? .......   .....397
F. What New York Can Do..............................399
1. Revenue Bonds/Special Funds with a Damage Cap ....................399
2. Subject-to-Appropriation Debt................     ...............402
* J.D. 2011, Columbia Law School. The author would like to thank Professor Michael
Gerrard for his advice and suggestions, as well as Sylvia Ewald, Isaac Forman, Shawn Crowley,
Lisa Perfetto, and the members of the staff of the Columbia journal of Environmental Law for
their comments and editorial work.

359

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