31 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 139 (2006)
New Approach to Extraterritorial Application of Environmental Statutes: Uncovering the Effects of Plan Colombia

handle is hein.journals/cjel31 and id is 145 raw text is: A New Approach to Extraterritorial
Application of Environmental Statutes?:
Uncovering the Effects of Plan Colombia
Joanne Sum-Ping*
I. In trodu ction  ................................................................................. 140
II. Plan  C olom bia  ............................................................................ 141
A. Plan  Colom  bia's Effects  .......................................................... 143
B. The  Congressional Report ...................................................... 145
C. Ajudicially Reviewable Environmental Report ..................... 148
III. Application of U.S. Environmental Statutes ............................ 148
A . H eadquarters Theory .............................................................. 150
1. Environmental Defense Fund v. Massey .................................... 150
2. Evaluation of Headquarters Theory .................................... 152
B. Express Congressional Intent and
the Presumption Against Extraterritoriality .......................... 153
1. National Environmental Policy Act ..................................... 155
a. Statutory  Language   ........................................................... 155
b. Legislative and Regulatory History .................................. 156
2. Endangered    Species Act ...................................................... 158
a. Statutory  Language   ........................................................... 158
b. Legislative and Regulatory History .................................. 159
C. Toward a Sound Policy of Extraterritorial
Application of U.S. Environmental Statutes .......................... 161
IV . T he  Effects  T est ......................................................................... 162
A. Application of the Effects Test to Environmental Laws ........ 162
B. Application of the Effects Test to Plan Colombia ................. 167
V . C onclu sion  .................................................................................. 169
* J.D. Candidate, Columbia Law School. The author would like to thank Professor Gail
Suchman and Marcello Mollo for their insightful comments on early drafts and their
continued support and guidance during the writing of this note.

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