28 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 1 (2003)
Warming up to a Not-So-Radical Idea: Tort-Based Climate Change Litigation

handle is hein.journals/cjel28 and id is 7 raw text is: WARMING UP TO A NOT-SO-RADICAL
IDEA: TORT-BASED CLIMATE
CHANGE LITIGATION
David A. Grossman*
I.  Introduction  .........................................................................  2
A. Appropriateness of Applying a Tort Framework .......... 3
B. Obstacles to Climate Change Litigation ....................... 5
C. Scope and Content of this Article ................................ 7
II. Present Effects of Climate Change and
Potential Plaintiffs ................................................................  9
A. Global Effects of Climate Change ............................... 10
B. Present Effects of Climate Change in the
U nited  States ................................................................  11
1.  Sea-Level Rise  .........................................................  12
2. Melting Permafrost and Shrinking and Thinning
Sea  Ice  ....................................................................  14
C. Potential Claims for Damages .................................... 16
1. Sea-Level Rise Claims ............................................ 16
2. Permafrost and Sea Ice Claims ............................. 18
3. Restrictions on Damage Recovery ......................... 20
III. Causation, Potential Defendants, and Liability
for  D am ages ......................................................................   22
A. Generic and Specific Causation .................................. 22
B. Proximate Causation and the
Substantiality Requirement ........................................ 25
C. Potential Types of Defendants ................................... 28
D. Liability for and Apportionment of Damages ............ 31
IV.  Preem   ption  ........................................................................  33
A. Federal Common Law ................................................ 33
* J.D., Yale Law School. I am indebted to Daniel Esty, Richard Revesz, Carol Rose, Don
Strait, Jennifer Yelin, Kyle Graham, Phil Radford, and Gwen Parker for their assistance and
advice about this project at various times over the past two years. I would also like to
acknowledge Elbert Lin, Isaac Nesser, and Amy Hughes for their own excellent research
efforts on portions of this topic.

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