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90 Calif. L. Rev. 291 (2002)
Is West Virginia Unconstitutional

handle is hein.journals/calr90 and id is 305 raw text is: California Law Review
VOL. 90                               MARCH 2002                                 No. 2
Copyright © 2002 by California Law Review, Inc.
Is West Virginia Unconstitutional?
Vasan Kesavant & Michael Stokes Paulsen]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Formalism and State Formation: The Story of West Virginia.......... 297
A. Nothing Secedes Like Secession ................................................ 297
B. Lincoln, Formalism, and the Civil War ...................................... 301
C. West Virginia and Formalism: Lincoln's Constitutional
Theory Applied........................................................................... 313
D. Playing West Virginia Forward: Rehearsal for
Reconstruction............................................................................ 325
E. Reconstructing West Virginia..................................................... 330
II. Textualism and State Creation: The Meaning of Article IV,
Section 3............................................................................................ 332
A. The Textual Argument................................................................ 334
1. The Problem of Punctuation................................................. 334
2. The Problem of Ambiguous Modification ........................... 352
3. Conclusions .......................................................................... 362
B. The Historical Argument ............................................................ 363
1. The Public Writings of the Federalists and
Anti-Federalists .................................................................... 364
Copyright © 2002 California Law Review, Inc. California Law Review, Inc. (CLR) is a California
nonprofit corporation. CLR and the authors are solely responsible for the content of their publications.
t Vice President, Francisco Partners. J.D., Yale Law School, 2001.
$ Briggs & Morgan Professor of Law, University of Minnesota Law School. J.D., Yale Law
School, 1985. The authors would like to thank our common friend, Professor Akhil Amar of Yale Law
School, for arranging this marriage of coauthors-who-have-never-met-personally. Mr. Kesavan would
also like to thank Kumar Kesavan and Jennifer Koester. Professor Paulsen would also like to thank
Professor Dan Farber and students in their Lincoln and the Constitution seminars at the University of
Minnesota Law School, 1997 and 2000, especially Alison Frye (Class of 1998) for her research into the
history of West Virginia's creation as a state.

291

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