About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

60 Calif. L. Rev. 1339 (1972)
Pretrial Release under California Penal Code Section 853.6: An Examination of Citation Release

handle is hein.journals/calr60 and id is 1359 raw text is: Comments
California Penal Code section 853.6 establishes police-initiated
pretrial release of misdemeanor arrestees by issuance of a citation.
Citation release under this statute avoids the two major defects of tra-
ditional pretrial release systems: the requirement of bail' and the de-
lay caused by judicial review. Despite these advantages, very few
jurisdictions have thus far made use of citation release. Oakland
California, however, instituted a comprehensive citation release pro-
gram in early 1970 that might serve as a model for other municipali-
This Comment analyzes both the theory and practice of such a
program. Part I compares citation release to several other meth-
ods of pretrial release. Part H presents a detailed case study of the
development, implementation, and operation of citation release in
While pretrial incarceration ensures that the arrestee will appear
at his trial, it works severe hardships upon both the state and the
suspect. Incarceration requires an outlay of public funds,2 and since
f  The author wishes to acknowledge his gratitude to the officers and staff
of the Oakland Police Department, especially C.R. Gain, Chief of Police, Linda
Moody, Legal Advisor, and Kathy Gumpel and Bill Soo Hoo, student interns, without
whose help this Comment could not have been completed.
1. Although initially the citation recipient need not post bond, the statute
allows the judge to impose bail at a later time. CAL. PENAL CODE § 853.6(e)
(West 1970). The experience of those cities having significant citation programs has
been that judges rarely, if ever, impose bail on nondefaulting citation recipients. See
notes 32 & 119 infra and accompanying texts.
2. The dollar amounts of these outlays will vary between communities, but
they must include the costs of feeding, caring for, and supervising the prisoner. The
most complete figures on the cost of detention come from New York City where, in
1962, a total of 1,775,778 jail-days costing over $10,000,000 ($6.25 per day) were
spent in pretrial detention. D. FREED & J. WALD, BAIL IN THE UNITED STATEs: 1964,
at 41 (1964) (a report to the National Conference on Bail and Criminal Justice,
Washington, D.C.) [hereinafter cited as FREED & WALD].


What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing thousands of academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.

Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline.

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most