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107 Calif. L. Rev. 1753 (2019)
Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security

handle is hein.journals/calr107 and id is 1789 raw text is: 

    Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for

        Privacy, Democracy, and National


                  Bobby   Chesney* and Danielle Citron**

           Harmful  lies are nothing new. But the ability to distort reality has
      taken an exponential  leap forward  with  deep fake  technology.  This
      capability makes  it possible to create audio and  video of real people
      saying and  doing  things  they never  said or  did. Machine   learning
      techniques  are  escalating  the technology's  sophistication,  making
      deep fakes ever more  realistic and increasingly resistant to detection.
      Deep-fake   technology   has  characteristics  that enable   rapid  and
      widespread  diffusion, putting it into the hands of both  sophisticated
      and unsophisticated  actors.

          DOI: https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38RVOD15J
          Copyright © 2019 California Law Review, Inc. California Law Review, Inc. (CLR) is a
California nonprofit corporation. CLR and the authors are solely responsible for the content of their
      *   James Baker Chair, University of Texas School of Law; co-founder of Lawfare.
      **  Professor of Law, Boston University School of Law; Vice President, Cyber Civil Rights
Initiative; Affiliate Fellow, Yale Information Society Project; Affiliate Scholar, Stanford Center on
Internet and Society. We thank Benjamin Wittes, Quinta Jurecic, Marc Blitz, Jennifer Finney Boylan,
Chris Bregler, Rebecca Crootof, Jeanmarie Fenrich, Mary Anne Franks, Nathaniel Gleicher, Patrick
Gray, Yasmin Green, Klon Kitchen, Woodrow Hartzog, Herb Lin, Helen Norton, Suzanne Nossel,
Andreas Schou, and Jessica Silbey for helpful suggestions. We are grateful to Susan McCarty, Samuel
Morse, Jessica Burgard, and Alex Holland for research assistance. We had the great fortune of getting
feedback from audiences at the PEN Board of Trustees meeting; Heritage Foundation; Yale Information
Society Project; University of California, Hastings College of the Law; Northeastern School of
Journalism 2019 symposium on AL, Media, and the Threat to Democracy; and the University of
Maryland School of Law's Trust and Truth Decay symposium. We appreciate the Deans who
generously supported this research: Dean Ward Farnsworth of the University of Texas School of Law,
and Dean Donald Tobin and Associate Dean Mike Pappas of the University of Maryland Carey School
of Law. We are grateful to the editors of the California Law Review, especially Erik Kundu, Alex
Copper, Yesenia Flores, Faye Hipsman, Gus Tupper, and Brady Williams, for their superb editing and


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