31 Can. J. Women & L. i (2019)

handle is hein.journals/cajwol31 and id is 1 raw text is: 






      Resource Extraction and the Human

               Rights of Women and Girls


                       Sara L. Seek and Penelope Simons


The  relationship between women  and resource extraction is complex and multi-
faceted. Women  may  work  within the extractive industry or in jobs that support
or service the industry. They may be part of a community  affected by resource
extraction and suffer differentiated impacts to those of men, which are either linked
to, among other things, their gender roles within the community, their intersectional
vulnerability to violence, or as activists and leaders resisting resource extraction.
Their roles and identities in their communities may change due to resource ex-
traction, and they may suffer inequalities in relation to accessing the benefits of
extractive projects.
   Large-scale mining and oil and gas development  has historically been highly
gendered and  deeply masculine. While there are an increasing number of women
working  within these  industries, whether as executives, employees,  lawyers,
or business partners, globally, women remain under-represented.2 In large-scale
resource extraction, women  are more likely to find work in human  resources,
communication,  accounting [and] finance rather than as managers and, as a re-
sult, have trouble advancing to executive roles.3 Even as it becomes more common
for women  to be directly engaged in industrial mining, there is a need to address
structural issues so as to ensure gender equality and a safe and discrimination-free
workplace.4


1.   Katy Jenkins, Women, Mining and Development: An Emerging Research Agenda
     (2014) 1:2 Extractive Industries and Society 329 at 330.
 2.  See e.g. Adriana Eftimie, Katherine Heller & John Strongman, Gender Dimensions of
     the Extractive Industries: Mining for Equity in Extractive Industries for Development
     Series #8 (Washington: World Bank, 2009) at 9; Clare Beckton & Umut Riza Ozkan,
     The Pathway Forward: Creating Gender Inclusive Leadership in Mining and Resources
     (2012) Centre for Women in Politics and Public Leadership at 18. This is not the case with
     artisanal and small-scale mining. See Eftimie, Heller & Strongman, supra note 2 at 23.
 3.  Beckton &  Ozkan, supra note 2 at 6. See also Raywat Deonandan, Kalowatie
     Deonandan &  Brennan Field, Mining the Gap: Aboriginal Women and the Mining
     Industry (2016) Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council [forthcoming, pre-
     print] at 8; Deanna Kemp et al, Retention of Women in the Minerals Industry in
     Unearthing New Resources: Attracting and Retaining Women in the Australian Miner-
     als Industry (Canberra: Australian Government Office for Women et al, 2011) at 22-23.
 4.  Jenkins, supra note 1 at 332.


      CJWL/RFD
doi: 10.3138/cjwl.31.1.01a

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