13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 345 (1994-1995)
Copyright Law and Social Dialogue on the Information Superhighway: The Case against Copyright Liability of Bulletin Board Operators

handle is hein.journals/caelj13 and id is 355 raw text is: COPYRIGHT LAW AND SOCIAL DIALOGUE ON
THE INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY: THE
CASE AGAINST COPYRIGHT LIABILITY OF
BULLETIN BOARD OPERATORS
NIVA ELKIN-KOREN*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  INTRODUCTION  ..........................................  346
II. THE CASE LAW APPROACH TO COMPUTERIZED BULLETIN
B OARDS  .................................................  350
A. Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Frena ................. 350
1. Infringing the Right of Public Distribution .... 351
a. Unauthorized Copying ..................... 352
b.  Distribution  ................................  355
2. Infringing the Right of Public Display ......... 357
B. Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Maphia ................... 362
1. Infringement by Subscribers and Fair Use ..... 365
a. The Analysis of the Court .................. 365
b. The Proper Focus of Fair Use .............. 367
c. Fair Use Applied to Users .................. 369
2.  Contributory  Liability ..........................  372
a. Grounds of Liability ........................ 372
b. The Ability and Right to Monitor the
Infringing  Use  .............................  376
III. CONCEPTUAL DIFFICULTIES ............................... 380
A. Copies, Copying and Fixation ........................ 381
1. Digitization and the Notion of Copy........ 381
2. The Notion of Copy and Copyright Policy... 383
B.  Distribution  and  Access ..............................  387
C. Digitization and the Public/Private Distinction ........ 390
1. Public, Private, and Copyright Law ............ 391
2. Public/Private Dichotomy Challenged ......... 394
3. The Public and the Digitized ................ 397
IV. REPRODUCING CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OF SOCIAL
D IALOGUE  ...............................................  399
* LL.B 1989, Tel Aviv University; LL.M 1991, Harvard Law School; S.J.D candidate,
Stanford Law School. I am deeply grateful to Yochai Benkler for his insightful comments
and generous support. I am also grateful to Ockie DupperJody Freeman, Paul Goldstein,
Wendy Gordon, Jonathan Joffee, Brian Kahin, Guy Mundluk, and Neil Netanel, for their
valuable comments on an earlier version of this article.

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