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9 Brown J. World Aff. 355 (2002-2003)
Nice But Tough: A Framework for U.S. Foreign Policy in the Muslim World

handle is hein.journals/brownjwa9 and id is 369 raw text is: Nice But Tough:
A Framework for
U.S. Foreign Policy in the
Muslim World
M.A. MUQTEDAR KHAN
Assistant Professor of Political Science
AdrianCollege
.he attacks on the United States on 11 September have had a significant
impact on U.S. foreign policy thinking. The government has now reoriented
its foreign policy approach, from one that was essentially geoeconomical
to one that is quintessentially geopolitical. Under President Clinton, the United
States focused primarily on advancing the so-called Washington consensus (World
Bank, IMF and the White House) on globalization and tried its best to make the
global economy a reality. Now there is a new consensus in Washington to fight
terrorism globally. Security has replaced the economy as the primary concern.
Realists are once again in the driver's seat and liberals increasingly find themselves
forced to cheer an agenda that is reminiscent of the Cold War.
Before 11 September, the United States had a segmented policy towards
the Muslim world. The fact that Indonesia and Malaysia are predominantly
Muslim nations was irrelevant to U.S. policy in the region. Indonesia was a major
military ally and an important cog in the potential coalition against China, as
well as the guardian of trading lanes in the Far East. On the other hand, Malaysia
was important to the United States as a trading partner. But now both the Muslim
Malay nations are seen as potential havens for anti-U.S. terrorists and are
important stops on the anti-terrorism trail.
During the Cold War, Pakistan was first seen as a major ally against the
expanding Soviet Union, and has since been seen as a potential nuclear
proliferator; conflict in the region could have global ramifications. Until 11 Sep-

Spring 2002 - Volume IX, Issue 1

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