9 Berkeley J. Middle E. & Islamic L. 1 (2018)

handle is hein.journals/bjme9 and id is 1 raw text is: 










  Iran:   The Formation of Trans Identity and

  Possible Paths Toward the Acceptance of

             Greater Gender Deviance


                         Sohayl  Vafai*

    Abstract: The  Islamic Republic of Iran is painted by Western
media as a peculiar site for the legality and regulation of sex reassignment
surgery and transgender and transsexual identities. This Article argues that
Iran's position on trans issues is not as peculiar or phenomenal as Western
media frequently claims. In Section I, I provide a general history of gender
and sexual performance in Qajar Iran. I then explain how Iranian-Western
interactions helped create heteronormalization in Iran. Finally, I discuss
the Islamic Republic of Iran and its effect on formulations of gender and
sex.  In Section  II, I  discuss Iran's legal-medical-religious sex
reassignment framework for those who identify as trans. In Section III, I
discuss trans advocacy in Iran, including why trans persons largely seek
entitlements rather than rights. In Section IV, I argue that Iranian trans and
other gender deviant persons are the best situated to affect their
situation. I explore the possibilities of liberatory approaches and activism
that utilize (1) coalitions that engage and mobilize multiple identity
groups, (2) language that allows for new meanings and representations of
identity, and (3) Ayatollah Khomeini's fatwa on sex reassignment surgery.

                         TABLE  OF CONTENTS
Introduction.....................................         ...... 2
I.History .......................5......           ..............5
      A.  Gender and Sexuality in the Qajar Dynasty  .    ............6
      B.  Western-centric Heteronormalization ........  ............... 8
      C.  The Islamic Republic of Iran and Khomeini's Fatwas ......... 15
      D.  Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Islamic Republic of
          Iran....................................... 18
II.Sex Reassignment Bureaucracy   ............................. 23
III.Trans Lives and Advocacy in Iran.........    .....  ..........25


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