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24 Berkeley J. Crim. L. 1 (2019)

handle is hein.journals/bjcl24 and id is 1 raw text is: 









  Measuring Changes in Incarceration

  Rates: Shifts in Carceral Intensity as

                Felt by Communities


                         Kevin R. Reitz t


In tro d u ctio n   ..............................................................................................  1
      A.  Three Illustrations of the Problem  ...................................... 5
      B. PCM versus ACM: 50-State Rankings ............................... 9
Part 1. Static M easurement of Carceral Intensity ................................... 12
Part 2. Percentage Change versus Absolute Change .............................. 13
P art  3. R eality  C hecks .......................................................................   14
      A. PCM-ACM Divergences Across All 50 States ................. 17
Part 4. Assessing the Benefits of the Percentage-Change Measure ....... 20
Part 5. A n  A lternative  B aseline .............................................................. 26
Part 6. Measuring Person Years of Incarceration .............................. 31
C o n clu sio n   ...................................................................................... . .   3 5
A p p en d ix   ....................................................................................... . . .   3 8



INTRODUCTION
       Incarceration rates (numbers of prisoners per capita) are a basic
indicator of how government's use of the prison sanction permeates into
the population as a whole-a concept I will call carceral intensity. If we
view incarceration as a subtraction from the life of a community-or a
succession of blows that are felt by the community-then the density


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38B27PR7N
Copyright © 2019 Regents of University of California
T James Annenberg La Vea Professor of Criminal Procedure, University of Minnesota
Law School; Co-Director, Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Justice. This article grew
out of a series of conversations with Frank Zimring, Anthony Doob, Richard Frase, and
Tapio Lappi-Seppala. My thinking was advanced by the approach used in Cheryl Marie
Webster & Anthony N. Doob, Penal Optimism: Understanding American Mass
Imprisonment from a Canadian Perspective, in AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM IN CRIME
AND PUNISHMENT 126 27, 128 29 tbl. 3.1, 169 n.7, 179 80 app. 3A.1. (Kevin R. Reitz
ed., 2018),

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