35 Am. U. L. Rev. 3 (1985-1986)
Judge and Jury in the Law of Defamation: Putting the Horse behind the Cart

handle is hein.journals/aulr35 and id is 17 raw text is: ARTICLES
JUDGE AND JURY IN THE LAW OF
DEFAMATION: PUTTING THE HORSE
BEHIND THE CART
LEE LEVINE*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction  ..............................................  4
I. New York Times Co. v. Sullivan: The Linchpin ...........   8
A. Definitional Balancing: Strategic Protection for
False  Expression  ..................................  8
B. Procedural Balancing: The Use of Sensitive
T ools   ........ ...................................  11
II. From New York Times to Bose: The Promise Unfulfilled..    14
A. Doctrinal Developments After New York Times ......    14
1. Definitional balancing: the contours of actual
m alice   ....... ................................  14
2. Procedural balancing: putting down sensitive
tools ...........................................  18
B. Practical Experience After New York Times ..........  24
1. Frequency of litigation, damage awards, and
associated  costs  ................................  24
2. Consequences for journalism and reputation ...    28
III. Bose Corporation v. Consumers Union of United States, Inc. :
The Court Responds ..................................    32
A. Resuscitating New York Times .......................  32
B. Putting the Horse Behind the Cart .................   37
IV. Procedural Balancing: The Role of Judge and Jury .....    39
A. Independent Appellate Review ....................     39
1. The seventh amendment .......................     40
* Attorney, Ross, Dixon & Masback, Washington, D.C. Member, District of Columbia
Bar. B.A., M.A., (1976), University of Pennsylvania; J.D., (1979), The Yale Law School.
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