21 Annu. Rep. A.B.A. 603 (1898)
Educational Franchises

handle is hein.journals/anraba21 and id is 603 raw text is: EDUCATIONAL FRANCHISES.

BY
EDWARD AVERY HARRIMAN,
OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
A franchise, according to Blackstone, is a royal privilege,
a branch of the king's prerogative, subsisting in the hands of
a subject. An educational franchise, therefore, is a right to
do something in connection with education that may not law-
fully be done without a grant of power from the sovereign.
The only matter touching education in regard to which one
may not act freely without a franchise is the granting of
degrees. A degree is defined in Mr. Rawle's edition of Bou-
vier's Law Dictionary as follows :- An honorable state or
condition to which a student is advanced in testimony of pro-
ficiency in arts and sciences.
Degrees are of two kinds, which may be termed respect-
ively scholastic and professional. A scholastic degree is con-
ferred by some body of scholars authorized by the sovereign
to bestow such degrees. Scholastic degrees are of two kinds,
ordinary and honorary.   Ordinary degrees are conferred in
token that the recipient possesses certain scholastic attain-
ments. Honorary degrees are conferred upon those whom the
degree-conferring body wishes for any reason to honor. In
speaking of degrees, these scholastic degrees are ordinarily
the only degrees referred to. There is, however, another
class of degrees no less important, namely, professional
degrees. A professional degree is conferred by some officer
or professional body authorized by the sovereign to confer
such degrees. Such a degree operates as a certificate of fitness
to practice the profession in question, and ordinarily as a
license to practice such profession.
(603)

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