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47 Our Dumb Animals 33 (1914-1915)
Vol. 47 No. 3

handle is hein.journals/animals47 and id is 33 raw text is: 









                                       U.S  rde Mark, Regsed
                                    1868, AND  FOR  FORTy4N      ,
                      T    GELL e  AMimals, The American Hum San




0s1                       I would not enter on my list of friends,                      1p %ry
         0                  Though  graced with polished manners      +
                              and  fine sense,                             GO-D TO
                                        senseOD,'. TO
                          Yet wanting sensibility, the man     a PEACE CN EARTH,   I
                             1,     A   l    ~ I U upuKINDNES8 JUSTICE


 Y sets oot upon a worm.
               -Cowper.


O AND ME I CY TO'  .
  EVERY LIVING
 cREATURE.
  -     w40a


Vol. 47                                           Boston, August, 1914                                                           No. 3


Evidences                           of        Relationship

                         I. Man-like Apes

                By   PROFESSOR J. HOWARD MOORE


               HE science of   biology teaches
                    us  that the first animals
                    were  the lowest animals,
                    and  that from these lowest
                    forms have grown, through
                    many   millions of years, all
                    of the different families and
                    species that now make  up
                    the  animal kingdom,   in-
                    cluding our  own  species.
                    The universal kinship means
the  blood-relationship of all the orders and
species of animals.   Since all animals  have
grown  from common  ancestors, they really form
one great family.  There are near relationships
and   remote  relationships, but relationships
everywhere.
  Since all men are bound together by the ties
of a common  kinship, so also are all the inhabi-
tants of the earth bound together by the ties of a
universal kinship. Whether they come  into ex-
istence among  the water$ or among  the desert
sands; in a hole in the earth, in the hollow of a
tree, or in a palace; whether they build nests or
empires; whether they swim, fly, crawl, or walk;
and  whether they realize it or riot - the inhabi-
tants of this world are all related to each other,
physically, mentally and morally.
  But  it is not necessary to be learned in science
in order to know that non-human beings are in a
general way much  like human beings. Just the
ordinary observation of them in their daily lives
about us is enough to convince anyone that they
are beings with joys and  sorrows, desires and
capabilities, similar to our own. No   human
being can associate with these people day after
day-associate with them  in a kind, honest, and
unprejudiced manner, as we  would want  to be
associated with in order to be judged-without
realizing that they are constantly misunderstood
by human   beings and that they are moved  by
much   the same instincts and  impulses as we
ourselves. They  eat and  sleep, seek pleasure
  This is the first of a series of four articles by J. Howard
Moore, instructor in Ethics at Crane Technical High
School, Chicago. His books, The Universal Kinship,
The New Ethics, etc., have had a wide reading both in
this country and abroad.


and try to avoid pain, cling vigorously to life,
experience health and disease, get seasick, suffer
hunger and  thirst, cooperate with each other,
build homes, reproduce themselves, love and pro-
vide for their children (feeding, defending, and
educating them), contend against enemies, con-
tract habits, remember and  forget, learn from
experience, have friends and favorites and pas-
times, appreciate kindness, commit crimes, dream
dreams, cry out in distress, are affected by alco-
hol, opium, strychnine, and other drugs, see,
hear, smell, taste, and feel, are industrious,
provident and cleanly, have languages, risk their
lives for others, manifest ingenuity, individuality,
fidelity, affection, gratitude, heroism, sorrow,
sexuality, self-control, fear, love, hate, pride,
suspicion, jealousy, joy, reason, resentment,
selfishness, curiosity, memory, imagination, re-
morse-all  of these things, and scores of others,
as human  beings do.
Man-like  Apes
  There  are four kinds of apes that are com-
monly  called the man-like apes. These apes are
called man-like, because in important respects
they more closely resemble man than other apes
do.  These  are the gorilla and chimpanzee of
Africa, the gibbon of Southern Asia, and  the
orang of Borneo and Sumatra. These  apes have
no external tail and tend to walk more or less in
an upright position, like man. In their general
looks and disposition they also resemble human
beings. These  apes are often called the anthro-
poid apes-anthropos  meaning man,  and  oid
meaning  like.
  The  anthropoid races have the same general
emotions and the same general ways of expressing
these emotions as  human  beings have.  They
laugh in joy, whine in distress, shed tears, pout
and  apologize, and get angry  when  they are
laughed  at. They  stick out  their lips when
sulky or pouting, stare with wide-open eyes in
astonishment, and look downcast  when  sad or
insulted. When  they laugh, they draw back the
corners of the  mouth  and  expose the  teeth,
their eyes sparkle, their lower eyelids wrinkle,
and they utter chuckling sounds, just as human


beings do.  They   have strong  sympathy  for
their sick and wounded,  and manifest toward
their friends, and especially toward the members
of their own  family, a devotion not  excelled
among  the lowest races of mankind. They  use
rude tools, such as clubs and sticks, and resort
to cunning and deliberation to accomplish their
ends.  The  orang, when  pursued,  will throw
sticks at his pursuers; and when wounded, and
the wound  does not prove  instantly fatal, will
sometimes  press his hand upon  the wound  or
apply grass and leaves to stop the flow of blood.
  The  children of anthropoids wrestle with each
other and chase and throw each other, just as do
the children of human households. The  gorilla,
chimpanzee, and orang, all build for themselves
lodges made  of broken  boughs  and leaves in
which  to sleep at night.  These lodges, rude
though they are, are not inferior to the habita-
tions of many primitive men.  The  Puris, who
live naked in the depths of the Brazilian forests,
do not even  have huts to live in, only screens
made  by setting up huge palm-leaves against a
cross-pole. Some of the African tribes are said
to live largely in caves and the crevices of rocks.
This  is the case with  many   primitive men.
According  to a writer in the  Journal of the
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and
Ireland  (January, 1902), Common forms of
dwelling among  the wild  tribes of the Malay
Peninsula  are rock-shelters (sometimes caves,
but more commonly  natural recesses under over-
hanging  ledges), and leaf-shelters, which are
sometimes  formed  on  the ground  and  some-
times in the  branches of trees. The  simplest
form  of these leaf-shelters consists of a single
palm-leaf planted in the ground  to afford the
wanderer some  slight shelter for the night.
  When   they sleep, the anthropoids sometimes
lie stretched out, man-like, on their backs, and
sometimes  lie on their side with their hand under
their head for a pillow. The orang retires about
five or six o'clock in the evening, and does not
rise until the morning sun  has dissipated the
mists of the forest. The gorilla and chimpanzee
seem  to mate  for life. The former lives, as a
rule, in single families, each family consisting of


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