13 Our Dumb Animals 1 (1880-1881)

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                                          I  would   not  enter  on  my   list of  friends,
                                          Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,
                                          Yet wanting sensibility, the man
                                          TVho needlessly sets foot upon a worm. - Cowper.


Vol.   13.                                          BOSTON, JUNE, 1880.                                                               No. 1.


                     Instinct.
   Who  taught the natives of the field and flood
   To shun their poison and to choose their food?
   Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand,
   Build on the wave, or arch beneath the sand?
   Who made the spider parallels design
   Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line?
   Who bid the stork Columbus-like explore
   Heavens not his own, and worlds unknown before,
   WHO  CALLS THE COUNCIL, STATES THE CERTAIN DAY.
   VHO rORMS THE PHALANX, AND WHO POINTS THE WAY ?
                                        - Pope.
                       Itt
       The Zoological Gardens of Philadelphia.
   The  collection at the present time numbers 942;
 and comprises  392 mammals,  415 birds, 51 batra-
 chians, and 84 reptiles, the whole valued at $46,-
 770.  Many  additions of interest and value have
 been made  to the collection during the year, both
 by presentation and purchase.
      THE  MORTALITY  AMONG  THE  ANIMALS.
   The estimated loss sustained by the society dur-
 ing the year by  the deaths of the animals was
 $6829. This was largely contributed to by a female
 giraffe, a female African elephant, a female hair
 seal, and a male South American  tapir. To this
 may be added a Javan  leopard, an ostrich, a pair
 of cheetahs, a young male Bactrian camel, and a
 moose.
   In speaking of  the deaths at the garden, Dr.
 Henry  C. Chapman,  Prosector of the Society, in
 his report, states that the steady diminishing rela-
 tive mortality of the past three years is attributed
 to the better hygienic measures observed in the
 construction 'of the cages, the character of the
 food, and the maintenance of proper temperature.
 The neglect of such measures is the most fertile
 source of disease in menageries, which no drugs
 or medical treatment can remedy. The  causes of
 death during the past year are such as are inherent
 to the nature of animals confined under conditions
 often unavoidably different from those in a state of
 nature, and which no foresight can prevent.
            FOOD  FOR THE  ANIMALS.
  The  amount of food consumed  daily by the ani-
mals is large. The chief meat-eating animals are
the lions, tigers, leopards, pumas, and hyenas.
Altogether they consume about 175 pounds of horse
meat a day.  Next in point of heavy feeding come
the elephants. Their chief food is hay, of which
it takes about four times as much to keep an ele-
phant as it does to keep a horse, the elephant eat-
ing about 100  pounds of hay  every twenty-four
hours.  And in order to keep  up his appetite the
hay must be the best going, being invariably tim-


  othy of the best grade. Other animals that eat
  hay are the giraffes, the camels, the deer, zebra,
  and different animals of the cattle species. The
  lions, tigers, leopards, and pumas are not the only
  animals that are fed on horse meat. The wolves
  and foxes and prairie dogs and monkeys and black
  bears also come in for their share of the supplies,
  being fed almost altogether on this kind of meat.
  Two years ago  it was found that they would eat
  the flesh of horses as quick as that of cows, and
  provision was made accordingly. This saves about
  fifty per cent. in expense.
  The   cost of feeding the lions, tigers, leopards,
  and pumas as stated is about $20 a week. Add to
  this the $114, cost of feeding the larger animals,
  elephants, giraffes, and others, and the cost is $134.
  The sea-lions have to be fed on fish, usually fresh
  and salt mackerel, each animal taking twelve or
  fifteen to each meal twice a day, and consuming
  altogether 100 pounds of fish daily. Next in point
  of delicate livers come the polar bears, whose reg-
  ular diet; is bread soaked in milk, with fish now
  and then for a change. The black bears are also
  given bread, 100 pounds being used daily. Vege-
  tables of almost every sort are fed liberally to the
  different animals,- cabbage, potatoes, carrots,
  onions, and turnips. The elephants are great cab-
  bage eaters, in addition to their standard diet, hay.
  The giraffes, singularly enough, are great onion
  eaters, while the deer and goats and animals of the
  cow species eat carrots and turnips and potatoes.
Bran  and oats and corn are also liberally distrib-
uted, once  or twice a  week,  among  the  hay-
eating animals. The  most delicate and expensive
feeder in the place perhaps is the ourang-outang,
which  gets beef, potatoes, bread, and honey. An-
other delicacy which must not  be omitted in the
diet of the polar bears is fish oil, of which they
get several supplies a week, The cost of feeding
the animals alone foots up to about $100 a day.
                      -Abridged from  Ledger.

         Massacre of the Dogs of Glasgow.
   So lately as November, 1876, only two months
subsequent to one of the congresses in that city of
the  British Association for the Promotion of Sci-
ence - a congress that had, however, in its dis-
cussion on  Spiritualism, exposed to public view
the morbid  credulity even of men of undoubted
scientific attainments, - Glasgow, collegiate and
wealthy, that prides itself on being the second city
of the British Empire,  by 'means  of its police
massacred  no less than 1,200 dogs. And for what


reason P  Because it was feared that some of these
poor   animals might become  rabid; that, if they
became   rabid, they would bite man; that, if man
were   so bitten, he would inevitably be affected
with  hydrophobia;  and that hydrophobia is a cer-
tainly fatal and horrible disease. The immediate
cause  of the slaughter was the fact that three men
haddied  of so-called  hydrophobia in the Royal In-
firmary of Glasgow, within a period of a few weeks.
   But the popular 'panic was based on a series of
false assumptions, and  therefore of false fears.
For  rabies is rare in the dog, at least in Scotland;
so much  so that very few practitioners, veterinary
or  medical, ever saw a genuine case; hydrophobia
in man  is equally rare there; and both in Scotland
and  elsewhere, when  hydrophobia does  occur in
man,  there is seldom proof of the rabidity of the
dog  that bit, or that was supposed to have bitten,
the patient. The  peculiar phenomena  of the dis-
ease  are, in the  majority of  cases  at least,
ascribable to morbid imagination.
   In short, the hue and cry of  mad dog is as
 little rational as the belief in diabolic possession;
 and the wholesale massacre of innocent animals
 on the ground  of mere   possibilities of being
 affected by this or that disorder is as cruel and
 indefensible in the one case as the other.
 It  has already been stated that, in the super-
 stitious ages, the excitement or passion of the
 persecuted cat or dog was  ascribed to diabolic
 possession, just as the epilepsy or mania of man
 was attributed to satanic or demoniac agency.
 And   the  treatment was in accordance with the
 popular belief. But it is doubtful whether, in
 these dark ages, there was any such ruthless sac-
 rifice to man's stupidity or morbid fears as the
 massacre of the dogs of Glasgow  by its magis-
 trates in the winter  of  1876.-  Mind  in the
 Lower Animals, vol. 2, pp. 363, 364.

           The Intelligence of Animals.
  It is commonly said that no animal can commu-
nicate its experience to another.  This I deny.
Nothing  is more  notorious than that a flock of
rooks can distinguish a man with a walking-stick
from one  with a gun, and act accordingly. It is
erroneous to  say that an  animal cannot  make
tools. I know of a case in which a wild elephant
tore off a piece of a branch to scratch its diseased
tooth with,-a  common   habit of these animals;
but, finding it too large, it deliberately broke it
smaller with the help of its trunk and fore feet.
Here was a case of reasoning.-London  Standard.


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