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34 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 143 (2018-2019)
The Human Right to Environment in the 21st Century: A Case for Its Recognition and Comments on the Systemic Barriers It Encounters

handle is hein.journals/amuilr34 and id is 157 raw text is: 







  THE HUMAN RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT IN
     THE 21ST CENTURY: A CASE FOR ITS
   RECOGNITION AND COMMENTS ON THE
   SYSTEMIC BARRIERS IT ENCOUNTERS

               LuIs E. RODR!GUEZ-RIVERA*


I. IN TR O D U C TIO N   ............................................................. 144
II. INITIAL CODIFICATION OF BINDING HUMAN
   RIGHTS AND THE ADVENT OF MODERN
   INTERNATIONAL      LAW    ................................................. 152
III. HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ............ 156
IV. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN RIGHT TO
   ENVIRONMENT: FIFTY YEARS OF RECOGNITION 163
   A. AUTONOMOUS RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT ...................... 166
      1. International L evel ................................................. 166
      2. R egional  L evel ....................................................... 178
      3. N ational  L evel  ....................................................... 182
   B. DERIVATIVE RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT ......................... 183
      1. International L evel ................................................. 183
      2. R egional  L evel ....................................................... 184
      3. N ational  L evel  ....................................................... 188
   C. PROCEDURAL ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS ...................... 189
      1. International L evel ................................................. 190
      2. R egional  L evel ....................................................... 193
V. CONTINUED SKEPTICISM DESPITE
   OVERWHELMING EVIDENCE OF THE
   CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHT TO
   EN V IR ON M EN T  .............................................................. 194
VI. OVERCOMING THE SYSTEMIC BARRIERS

* Professor of Environmental and International Law, University of Puerto Rico
School of Law. LL.M., University of Cambridge 1998; J.D., Harvard Law School
1987; B.A., Yale University 1984.

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